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  • lymphocytes
  • The graft contains donor T cells (T lymphocytes) that can be beneficial for the recipient by eliminating residual malignant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • CLL results in the build up of B cell lymphocytes in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis is typically based on blood tests finding high numbers of mature lymphocytes and smudge cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis of CLL is based on the demonstration of an abnormal population of B lymphocytes in the blood, bone marrow, or tissues that display an unusual but characteristic pattern of molecules on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal B lymphocytes consist of a stew of different antibody-producing cells, resulting in a mixture of both kappa- and lambda-expressing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In CLL, the lymphocytes are genetically clonal, of the B cell lineage (expressing marker molecules clusters of differentiation 19 and 20), and characteristically express the marker molecules CD5 and CD23. (wikipedia.org)
  • These B cells resemble normal lymphocytes under the microscope, although slightly smaller, and are fragile when smeared onto a glass slide, giving rise to many broken cells, which are called "smudge" or "smear" cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • An animal chimera is a single organism that is composed of two or more different populations of genetically distinct cells that originated from different zygotes involved in sexual reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • varying degrees of intersex differences may result if one set of cells is genetically female and another genetically male. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, all the CLL cells within one individual are clonal, that is, genetically identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • tacrolimus
  • Investigators had planned to assess whether the grade of acute GVHD was decreased by visilizumab in combination with tacrolimus/methotrexate compared to standard treatment with thymoglobulin/tacrolimus/methotrexate after transplantation from unrelated mismatched donors, from day of transplant up to one year. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • chemotherapy
  • That same year, Pecora was the lead author on the study of CD34+CD33− cells as it relates to chemotherapy treatment and bone marrow transplantation for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). (wikipedia.org)
  • They also found the reverse that those who had received less significant levels of chemotherapy treatment had higher levels of CD34+CD33− cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chimerism
  • A genetic chimerism or chimera (also spelled chimaera) is a single organism composed of cells with distinct genotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another way that chimerism can occur in animals is by organ transplantation, giving one individual tissues that developed from a different genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • In the DNA era, the availability of PCR-based methods has afforded investigators the tools with which to study HLA-C diversity and the implications of this variation on alloreactivity in blood, marrow and cord blood transplantation. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this Frontiers Research Topic, the functional consequences of HLA-C diversity, its role in T and NK-mediated alloreactions that impact risks of acute and chronic GVHD and relapse after blood, marrow and cord blood transplantation, will be highlighted. (frontiersin.org)
  • G-CSF will be continued until the patient's white blood cell count has returned to normal levels. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 11:945-955 (2005). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In animals, this means an individual derived from different zygotes, which can include possessing both female and male sex organs, blood cells of two blood types, or subtle variations in form. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, transplantation of bone marrow (an organ often not thought of as being such) often determines the recipient's ensuing blood type. (wikipedia.org)
  • 95% of marmoset fraternal twins trade blood through chorionic fusions, making them hematopoietic chimeras. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often, most or all of the cells of a single cell type will be composed of a single cell line, i.e. the blood may be composed predominantly of one cell line, and the internal organs of the other cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among those affected, the majority develops cancer, most often acute myelogenous leukemia, and 90% develop bone marrow failure (the inability to produce blood cells) by age 40. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the failure of hematologic components to develop-white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets-the body's capabilities to fight infection, deliver oxygen, and form clots are all diminished. (wikipedia.org)
  • While at birth, blood count is usually normal, macrocytosis/megaloblastic anemia, defined as unusually large red blood cells, is the first detected abnormality, often within the first decade of life (median age of onset is 7 years). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evans syndrome is an autoimmune disease in which an individual's antibodies attack their own red blood cells and platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a condition in which the red blood cells that normally carry oxygen and carbon dioxide are destroyed by an autoimmune process. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells do not function well and crowd out healthy blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most people are diagnosed without symptoms as the result of a routine blood test that shows a high white blood cell count. (wikipedia.org)
  • Less commonly, CLL may present with enlarged lymph nodes without a high white blood cell count or no evidence of the disease in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • CLL is usually first suspected by a diagnosis of lymphocytosis, an increase in a type of white blood cell, on a complete blood count test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most often the lymphocyte count is greater than 5000 cells per microliter (µl) of blood, but can be much higher. (wikipedia.org)
  • This causes a deficiency of all three blood cell types (pancytopenia): red blood cells (anemia), white blood cells (leukopenia), and platelets (thrombocytopenia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aplastic refers to inability of the stem cells to generate mature blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal bone marrow has 30-70% blood stem cells, but in aplastic anemia, these cells are mostly gone and replaced by fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low white blood cell counts (leukocytopenia) if present leads to an increased risk of infections which can be severe. (wikipedia.org)
  • One known cause is an autoimmune disorder in which white blood cells attack the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because it infects red blood cells as a result of the affinity for the P antigen, Parvovirus causes complete cessation of red blood cell production. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, this goes unnoticed, as red blood cells live on average 120 days, and the drop in production does not significantly affect the total number of circulating red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] More frequently parvovirus B19 is associated with aplastic crisis which involves only the red blood cells ( despite the name). (wikipedia.org)
  • Intact females, if not mated, will remain in heat, and after some time the high levels of estrogen will cause the bone marrow to stop producing red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • regimen
  • In the FLAG-IDA regimen (also called FLAG-Ida, IDA-FLAG, or Ida-FLAG), idarubicin-an anthracycline antibiotic that is able to intercalate DNA and prevent cell division (mitosis)-is added to the standard FLAG regimen. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial
  • The protein encoded by this gene is an endothelial cell adhesion molecule that interacts preferentially with the leukocyte beta7 integrin LPAM-1 (alpha4 / beta7), L-selectin, and VLA-4 (alpha4 / beta1) on myeloid cells to direct leukocytes into mucosal and inflamed tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of migration, MADCAM is selectively expressed on mucosal endothelial cells, driving memory T-cell re-circulation through mucosal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • In 1997, rituximab became the first monoclonal antibody drug for cancer on the market, revolutionizing treatment for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • IgM is the form of antibody that all B cells produce initially, before they undergo class switching due to exposure to a recognized antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes cells that naturally secrete the relevant therapeutic factors, or which undergo epigenetic changes or genetic engineering that causes the cells to release large quantities of a specific molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxicity
  • Building on his expertise with antibody-based cancer therapy and reduced-toxicity treatment approaches, Maloney is developing adoptive T cell therapy for cancer using chimeric antigen receptors, or CARs, synthetic versions of T-cell receptors that incorporate cancer-targeting antibodies, which allow the immune cells to specifically target cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • systemic
  • In this paradigm multipotent or unipotent cells differentiate into a specific cell type in the lab or after reaching the site of injury (via local or systemic administration). (wikipedia.org)
  • The delivered cells (via local or systemic administration) remain viable for a relatively short period (days-weeks) and then die. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • Typically, diagnosis involves several preliminary tests of immune function, including basic evaluation of the humoral immune system and the cell-mediated immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • assessment
  • Simultaneous research efforts in several areas including comorbidity assessment, novel preparative regimens, optimal pretransplant cytoreductive strategy and post-transplantation therapies, are expected to improve long term disease-free survival as well as quality of life. (aamds.org)
  • therapy
  • The low response rate of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to IL-2 or IFN-α therapy has stimulated the search for innovative treatment modalities. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transplantation of OEG into the spinal cord has become a possible therapy for spinal cord damage and other neural diseases in animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell therapy originated in the nineteenth century when scientists experimented by injecting animal material in an attempt to prevent and treat illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today two distinct categories of cell therapy are recognized. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first category is cell therapy in mainstream medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell therapy can be defined as therapy in which cellular material is injected into a patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • The origins of cell therapy can perhaps be traced to the nineteenth century, when Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard (1817-1894) injected animal testicle extracts in an attempt to stop the effects of aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1931 Paul Niehans (1882-1971) - who has been called the inventor of cell therapy - attempted to cure a patient by injecting material from calf embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone marrow transplants have been found to be effective, along with some other kinds of human cell therapy - for example in treating damaged knee cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent times, cell therapy using human material has been recognized as an important field in the treatment of human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mainstream medicine, cell therapy is supported by a distinct healthcare industry which sees strong prospects for future growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In allogeneic cell therapy the donor is a different person to the recipient of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell therapy is targeted at many clinical indications in multiple organs and by several modes of cell delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • CD40 is a co-stimulatory receptor on B cells that, when bound to CD40 ligand (CD40L), sends a signal to the B-cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In malignant B cells, miRNAs participate in pathways fundamental to the cells' development, such as receptor signalling, migration/adhesion, cell-cell interactions in immune niches, and the production and class-switching of immunoglobulins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons have an average lifespan of 6-8 weeks and therefore must be replaced by cells differentiated from the stem cells that are within a layer at the nearby epithelium's base. (wikipedia.org)
  • progressive
  • We surmise that the reported accumulation of interleukin-2 receptors in circulation over time may neutralize interleukin-2, lead to progressive loss of regulatory T-cells, and offset its clinical efficacy. (haematologica.org)
  • Factors
  • Cells that have the capacity to release soluble factors such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors which act in a paracrine or endocrine manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of this include cells that secrete factors which facilitate angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • platelets
  • Autoantibodies targeted at different antigenic determinants on red cells and platelets are assumed to cause isolated episodes of hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Research into human embryonic stem cells is controversial, and regulation varies from country to country, with some countries banning it outright. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Healthy B cells efficiently switch to other types of antibodies as needed to attack invading bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • In people with hyper IgM syndromes, the B cells keep making IgM antibodies because they can't switch to a different antibody. (wikipedia.org)