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  • 2016
  • http://www.bma.org.uk/working-for-change/improving-and-protecting-health/alcohol/alcohol-and-pregnancy (Accessed on February 11, 2016). (uptodate.com)
  • pregnant
  • Pregnant mice were exposed to alcohol, through oral gavage, on gestational days 7-16, with recorded blood alcohol concentration (BAC)s averaging 1.84 mg/ml (chronic alcohol group, CA). Two control groups, an oral gavage sucrose control group (chronic alcohol control group, CAc) and a non-treated control group (NTc), were also examined. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • pregnancy
  • In the United States, substantial percentage of women (20-25%) of childbearing age currently smoke cigarettes and consume alcohol, and only a small percentage of these individuals quit after learning of their pregnancy. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • misuse
  • The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that primary care providers screen all adults and conduct brief counseling interventions with those who misuse alcohol. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • diagnostic
  • In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), American Psychiatric Association, Arlington, VA 2013. (uptodate.com)