• pyruvate
  • Alanine is most commonly produced by reductive amination of pyruvate, a two-step process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The net result is that pyruvate and ammonia are converted to alanine, consuming one reducing equivalent.p. 721 Because transamination reactions are readily reversible and pyruvate is present in all cells, alanine can be easily formed and thus has close links to metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glucose-alanine cycle enables pyruvate and glutamate to be removed from the muscle and safely transported to the liver, where glucose is regenerated from pyruvate and then returned to muscle: this moves the energetic burden of gluconeogenesis to the liver instead of the muscle, and all available ATP in the muscle can be devoted to muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • Racemic alanine can be prepared by the condensation of acetaldehyde with ammonium chloride in the presence of sodium cyanide by the Strecker reaction, or by the ammonolysis of 2-bromopropanoic acid: Alanine is broken down by oxidative deamination, the inverse reaction of the reductive amination reaction described above, catalyzed by the same enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • side-chain
  • Because alanine's side-chain cannot be phosphorylated (only compounds like 3-Phosphino-L-alanine and 3-Hydroxyphosphinylalanine are known), it is useful in loss of function experiments with respect to phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)