• Much of the recent epidemiology has been based on time-series studies of large urban populations, although there are also a number of small panel studies of groups that may be more susceptible to the effects air pollutants. (bmj.com)
  • He said emissions of six key pollutants have dropped by 54 percent since 1970, and the national average concentration for each criteria pollutant is below the level of its air quality standard. (ohsonline.com)
  • To date, PAS for POPs have mainly been used as integrating (long-term) samplers for ambient (outdoor) air. (rsc.org)
  • We discuss the potential advantages, limitations and developments needed, so that PAS can be used reliably and routinely indoors and in occupational settings for POPs. (rsc.org)
  • Cadmium, which is known to cause emphysema in occupational settings, may also be important in the development of tobacco related lung disease. (bmj.com)