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  • polymer
  • Agarose is a linear polymer with a molecular weight of about 120,000, consisting of alternating D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactopyranose linked by α-(1→3) and β-(1→4) glycosidic bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each agarose chain contains ~800 molecules of galactose, and the agarose polymer chains form helical fibres that aggregate into supercoiled structure with a radius of 20-30 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The agarose polymer contains charged groups, in particular pyruvate and sulfate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media A hydrogel is a network of polymer chains that are hydrophilic, sometimes found as a colloidal gel in which water is the dispersion medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • pore
  • When solidified, the fibres form a three-dimensional mesh of channels of diameter ranging from 50 nm to >200 nm depending on the concentration of agarose used - higher concentrations yield lower average pore diameters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pore size of a gel must be carefully controlled in order to be able to apply the gel to a given separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • bead
  • To prevent steric interference or overlap during the binding process of the target molecule to the ligand, an inhibitor containing a hydrocarbon chain is first attached to the agarose bead (solid support). (wikipedia.org)
  • This inhibitor with a hydrocarbon chain is commonly known as the spacer between the agarose bead and the target molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterization
  • In addition to being a rapid method, it allows to use small quantities of yeasts or mycelium as starting material, being obtained sufficient dsRNA quantity that can later be analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, treated with enzymes for its partial characterization, amplified by RT-PCR and cloned in appropriate vectors for further sequencing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • agar gel
  • Differential media includes an indicator that causes visible, easily detectable changes in the appearance of the agar gel or bacterial colonies in a specific group of bacteria. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Historically, tests such as agar gel immunodiffusion and indirect enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to detect BTV and EHDV species-specific antibodies, but have the major drawback of being unable to consistently distinguish between antibodies to viruses in the two species. (scribd.com)
  • sulfate
  • N. Volpi, F. Maccari, J. Titze: Simultaneous detection of submicrogram quantities of hyaluronic acid and dermatan sulfate on agarose-gel by sequential staining with toluidine blue and Stains-All. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantities
  • N. Volpi, F. Maccari: Detection of submicrogram quantities of glycosaminoglycans on agarose gels by sequential staining with toluidine blue and Stains-All. (wikipedia.org)
  • positively charged
  • Zero EEO agaroses are also available but these may be undesirable for some applications as they may be made by adding positively charged groups that can affect subsequent enzyme reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, cyanogen bromide activation involves the attachment of a ligand to agarose by an isourea bond, which is positively charged at neutral pH and thus unstable. (wikipedia.org)
  • facilitate
  • It is soluble in water and available as a stabilized solution at neutral pH and immobilized onto an agarose support to facilitate removal of the reducing agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • size
  • Since none of the four nucleotide bases carry any charge, net charge becomes insignificant and size is the main factor affecting rate of diffusion through the gel. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • It was in the fifties and sixties that theoretical models were developed for IC for further understanding and it was not until the seventies that continuous detectors were utilized, paving the path for the development from low-pressure to high-performance chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agarose gel can have high gel strength at low concentration, making it suitable as an anti-convection medium for gel electrophoresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique utilizes a high voltage (≥ 20 V/cm) with a 0.5× Tris-borate buffer run across an agarose gel. (wikipedia.org)
  • cross-linked
  • By weight, gels are mostly liquid, yet they behave like solids due to a three-dimensional cross-linked network within the liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disposable diapers where they absorb urine, or in sanitary napkins Contact lenses (silicone hydrogels, polyacrylamides, polymacon) EEG and ECG medical electrodes using hydrogels composed of cross-linked polymers (polyethylene oxide, polyAMPS and polyvinylpyrrolidone) Water gel explosives Rectal drug delivery and diagnosis Encapsulation of quantum dots Breast implants Glue Granules for holding soil moisture in arid areas Dressings for healing of burn or other hard-to-heal wounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • It is the crosslinking within the fluid that gives a gel its structure (hardness) and contributes to the adhesive stick (tack). (wikipedia.org)
  • This internal network structure may result from physical bonds (physical gels) or chemical bonds (chemical gels), as well as crystallites or other junctions that remain intact within the extending fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Cyanogen bromide is also often used because it reacts with the hydroxyl groups on agarose to form cyanate esters and imidocarbonates. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • The melting and gelling temperatures of agarose can be modified by chemical modifications, most commonly by hydroxyethylation, which reduces the number of intrastrand hydrogen bonds, resulting in lower melting and setting temperatures than standard agaroses. (wikipedia.org)
  • liquid
  • Gels consist of a solid three-dimensional network that spans the volume of a liquid medium and ensnares it through surface tension effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • properties
  • A gel is a solid jelly-like material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough. (wikipedia.org)