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  • Blacks
  • Changes in the main commodity crops to less labor-intensive crops after the American Revolutionary War numerous slaveholders freed their slaves by deed or in wills, so that the percentage of free blacks to the total number of blacks rose from less than one percent to 10 percent in the Upper South. (wikipedia.org)
  • African-American literature explores the issues of freedom and equality long denied to Blacks in the United States, along with further themes such as African-American culture, racism, religion, slavery, a sense of home, segregation, migration, feminism, and more. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early Republic, African-American literature represented a way for free blacks to negotiate their identity in an individualized republic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free African American Christians founded their own churches which became the hub of the economic, social, and intellectual lives of blacks in many areas of the fledgling nation. (loc.gov)
  • This paper and other early writings by blacks fueled the attack against slavery and racist conceptions about the intellectual inferiority of African Americans. (loc.gov)
  • Thousands of freed blacks, with the aid of interested whites, returned to Africa with the aid of the American Colonization Society and colonized what eventually became Liberia. (loc.gov)
  • Blacks were originally brought to America to serve as slaves in southeastern states on large-scale plantations. (conservapedia.com)
  • Blacks tended to support the Republican Party from the 1860s to the 1960s, but few who lived in the South voted--some states even stopped people of African ancestry voting by the use of literacy tests, poll taxes and other measures. (conservapedia.com)
  • The uninterrupted history of blacks in the United States began in 1619, when 20 Africans were landed in the English colony of Virginia. (britannica.com)
  • enslavement
  • Professor Bartolome de Albornoz of the University of Mexico writes against the enslavement and sale of Africans. (blackpast.org)
  • Equiano recounts his childhood in Africa until his capture and enslavement, his subsequent sale to European traders, the horrors of the middle passage, his bondage in the United States, and his life on board British merchant vessels from 1758 to 1788--first as a slave and later for hire. (loc.gov)
  • captives
  • One theory is that AAVE arose from one or more slave creole languages that arose from the Atlantic slave trade and the need for African captives, who spoke many different languages, to communicate among themselves and with their captors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hausa
  • An introductory course in the understanding, reading and speaking of Hausa, a language spoken by more than 70 million people in West Africa. (temple.edu)
  • Puerto Rico
  • An introductory course in the understanding, reading, and speaking of Yoruba, an African language which has had a major impact on the African cultures of Brazil, Haiti, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the United States. (temple.edu)
  • colonial
  • By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. (wikipedia.org)
  • Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century. (wikipedia.org)
  • African Americans, who are largely descended from Africans of the American colonial era, have lived and worked in France since the 1800s. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been created within the larger realm of post-colonial literature, although scholars distinguish between the two, saying that "African American literature differs from most post-colonial literature in that it is written by members of a minority community who reside within a nation of vast wealth and economic power. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although their lives were circumscribed by numerous discriminatory laws even in the colonial period, freed African Americans, especially in the North, were active participants in American society. (loc.gov)
  • 15th
  • Notably, the Maryland legislature refused to ratify both the 14th Amendment, which conferred citizenship rights on former slaves, and the 15th Amendment, which gave the vote to African Americans. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a petition sent by African Americans to the Los Angeles Board of Education in 1872, the California Supreme Court ruled Ward v. Floor current segregation in educational practices as unconstitutional, breaching U.S. Constitution's 14th and 15th amendments. (wikipedia.org)
  • artisans
  • African farmers and artisans accompany Pedro Menendez de Aviles on the expedition that establishes the community of San Agustin (St. Augustine, Florida). (blackpast.org)
  • remain
  • The German Nazi invasion of Paris in June 1940 meant suppression of the "corrupt" influence of jazz in the French capital and danger of imprisonment for African Americans choosing to remain in the city. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virginia
  • Soon the first African slavers were bought to the new Province of Maryland by 1642 to develop the economy in a similar way to Virginia, with tobacco being the commodity crop, which was labor-intensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immigrants
  • It was also quite common for immigrants and cultural minorities to choose baby names or change their names to fit in within the wider American culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • It includes people who are of full or partial African American background. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2015, the number of African-American residents has been estimated at around 3,000 people, a large portion of whom live in Accra. (wikipedia.org)
  • It took full-page advertisements on November 23, 1922, in The New York Times , The Atlanta Constitution , and several other leading newspapers entitled "The Shame of America," with the subheading "3436 People Lynched 1889 to 1922. (loc.gov)
  • peoples
  • An overview of the cultural experience of African peoples. (temple.edu)
  • Designed to acquaint students with important historical and philosophical investigations of the creative process and to explore interrelationships, similarities, and differences in the various cultural expressions of African peoples. (temple.edu)
  • 1980s
  • To reestablish "cultural integrity" in the late 1980s, Jesse Jackson proposed African American , which-unlike some "baseless" colour label-proclaims kinship with a historical land base. (britannica.com)
  • museums
  • After the Civil War, it became increasingly acceptable for African American-created works to be exhibited in museums, and artists increasingly produced works for this purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • minority
  • However, a minority of linguists argue that the vernacular shares so many characteristics with African creole languages spoken around the world that it could have originated as its own English-based creole or semi-creole language, distinct from the English language, before undergoing a process of decreolization . (wikipedia.org)
  • Angola
  • The overwhelming majority were taken from the area of western Africa stretching from present-day Senegal to Angola, where political and social organization as well as art, music, and dance were highly advanced. (britannica.com)
  • various
  • Even though Booker T. Washington called for reconciliation between the races, the period of his ascendancy as a leader was one of tremendous racial violence toward African Americans in various parts of the United States, but especially in the South. (loc.gov)
  • blacks
  • Free African American Christians founded their own churches which became the hub of the economic, social, and intellectual lives of blacks in many areas of the fledgling nation. (loc.gov)
  • This paper and other early writings by blacks fueled the attack against slavery and racist conceptions about the intellectual inferiority of African Americans. (loc.gov)
  • Thousands of freed blacks, with the aid of interested whites, returned to Africa with the aid of the American Colonization Society and colonized what eventually became Liberia. (loc.gov)
  • Blacks were originally brought to America to serve as slaves in southeastern states on large-scale plantations. (conservapedia.com)
  • Blacks tended to support the Republican Party from the 1860s to the 1960s, but few who lived in the South voted--some states even stopped people of African ancestry voting by the use of literacy tests, poll taxes and other measures. (conservapedia.com)
  • The uninterrupted history of blacks in the United States began in 1619, when 20 Africans were landed in the English colony of Virginia. (britannica.com)
  • Changes in the main commodity crops to less labor-intensive crops after the American Revolutionary War numerous slaveholders freed their slaves by deed or in wills, so that the percentage of free blacks to the total number of blacks rose from less than one percent to 10 percent in the Upper South. (wikipedia.org)
  • African-American literature explores the issues of freedom and equality long denied to Blacks in the United States, along with further themes such as African-American culture, racism, religion, slavery, a sense of home, segregation, migration, feminism, and more. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early Republic, African-American literature represented a way for free blacks to negotiate their identity in an individualized republic. (wikipedia.org)
  • culture
  • The state, and particularly the major cities of Memphis and Nashville have played important roles in African-American culture and the Civil Rights Movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is widely held that prior to the 1950s and 1960s, most African-American names closely resembled those used within European-American culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also quite common for immigrants and cultural minorities to choose baby names or change their names to fit in within the wider American culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the 1970s and 1980s, it had become common within African-American culture to invent new names. (wikipedia.org)
  • The book Baby Names Now: From Classic to Cool-The Very Last Word on First Names places the origins of "La" names in African-American culture in New Orleans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Museums
  • After the Civil War, it became increasingly acceptable for African American-created works to be exhibited in museums, and artists increasingly produced works for this purpose. (wikipedia.org)