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  • clouds
  • Droplets of water or ice particles suspended in clouds, as well as bits of dust and other particles floating in the air, called aerosols, reflect and absorb light and heat coming into and leaving our planet. (amnh.org)
  • The Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observer (CALIPSO) uses a laser-based technology that provides detailed vertical profiles of aerosol plumes and clouds. (nasa.gov)
  • That's because aerosols-and clouds seeded by them-reflect about a quarter of the Sun's energy back to space. (nasa.gov)
  • Aerosols may influence climate in two ways: directly through scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly through acting as condensation nuclei for cloud formation or modifying the optical properties and lifetime of clouds (from the always useful IPCC glossary ). (realclimate.org)
  • Climate Change
  • Our main Science Topics, as defined within PACES Research Unit 1a deal with the quantification of different factors affecting Arctic climate change like changing synoptic patterns, increasing long wave radiation, boundary layer processes, or seasonal aerosol forcing. (awi.de)
  • Despite the importance of pre-industrial aerosols for historical climate change, the relevant processes and emissions are given relatively little consideration in climate models, and there have been very few attempts to evaluate them. (springer.com)
  • emissions
  • In contrast to aerosol emissions in the lower troposphere ( see above Aerosols ), aerosols that enter the stratosphere may remain for several years before settling out, because of the relative absence of turbulent motions there. (britannica.com)
  • The low concentration of aerosol particles under relatively pristine conditions means that global mean cloud albedo may have been twice as sensitive to changes in natural aerosol emissions under pre-industrial conditions compared to present-day conditions. (springer.com)
  • 2000
  • This map shows the average distribution of aerosols from June 2000 through May 2010, measured by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR). (nasa.gov)
  • sulfates
  • Scientists believe the cooling from sulfates and other reflective aerosols overwhelms the warming effect of black carbon and other absorbing aerosols over the planet. (nasa.gov)
  • reflectivity
  • In addition to scattering or absorbing radiation, aerosols can alter the reflectivity, or albedo, of the planet. (nasa.gov)
  • Aerosols, particularly black carbon, can alter reflectivity by depositing a layer of dark residue on ice and other bright surfaces. (nasa.gov)
  • stratosphere
  • In 1991, the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines ejected more than 20 million tons of sulfur dioxide-a gas that reacts with other substances to produce sulfate aerosol-as high as 60 kilometers (37 miles) above the surface, creating particles in the stratosphere. (nasa.gov)
  • Furthermore, because of large-scale circulation patterns within the stratosphere, aerosols injected within tropical regions tend to spread out over the globe, whereas aerosols injected within midlatitude and polar regions tend to remain confined to the middle and high latitudes of that hemisphere. (britannica.com)
  • pollutants
  • Shindell also thinks climate policy-makers need to pay much more attention to restricting short-lived pollutants, such as methane, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aerosols. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Methane, aerosols and other short-lived pollutants have a complicated chemical relationship, only some of which Shindell's models could capture. (scientificamerican.com)
  • 1750
  • Nevertheless, it is clear that the 1850s should be regarded as an early industrial reference period, and the aerosol forcing calculated from this period is smaller than the forcing since 1750. (springer.com)
  • wildfires
  • In the Arctic especially, aerosols from wildfires and industrial pollution are likely hastening the melting of ice. (nasa.gov)
  • haze
  • Recent studies of the Sahel drought and major increases since 1967 in rainfall over the Northern Territory, Kimberley, Pilbara and around the Nullarbor Plain have led some scientists to conclude that the aerosol haze over South and East Asia has been steadily shifting tropical rainfall in both hemispheres southward. (enn.com)
  • affect climate
  • Although it became clear about 40 years ago that aerosols could affect climate, the measurements needed to establish the magnitude of such effects-or even whether specific aerosol types warm or cool the surface-were lacking. (nasa.gov)
  • radiation
  • First, Ruckstuhl et al found that as aerosols have decreased in Europe over the last few decades (as a result of environmental standards legislation), the amount of solar radiation at the ground has increased while the amount reflected to space has decreased. (realclimate.org)
  • The uncertainty in model simulations of PI aerosols may not make a large contribution to the calculated forcing uncertainty associated with aerosol-radiation interactions [ 3 , 12 ] because the magnitude of the forcing depends approximately linearly on the aerosol load [ 13 ] (so the perturbation calculated by the model is not strongly dependent on the reference state). (springer.com)
  • ozone
  • But simply trying to couple ozone chemistry and aerosol chemistry like this is an advance, says Dentener. (scientificamerican.com)
  • These cleaners make excellent replacements for high global warming potential (GWP) and toxic aerosol cleaners because they are fast-drying and have low toxicity and favorable environmental profiles - with low GWPs and zero ozone depletion potential (ODP). (3m.com)
  • observational
  • Unfortunately, there is sparse observational data describing the vertical profiles of aerosols and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) as a function of altitude. (anl.gov)
  • There is insufficient observational evidence to accurately define the state of atmospheric aerosols in the PI, so we mostly rely on estimates from global climate model simulations. (springer.com)
  • surface
  • Secondly, it has been suggested that the global mean climate sensitivity may depend on the sea-surface temperature pattern [ 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ], which to a large degree will be controlled by the very uncertain distribution of natural aerosols. (springer.com)
  • gases
  • The team of researchers will take daily measurements of trace gases and aerosols the city emits (known as the Sacramento urban plume) under relatively well defined and regular weather conditions. (enn.com)
  • Certain plants produce gases that react with other substances in the air to yield aerosols, such as the "smoke" in the Great Smoky Mountains of the United States. (nasa.gov)
  • Aerosols and short-lived gases aren't totally ignored. (scientificamerican.com)
  • scientists
  • Today scientists use an array of satellite, aircraft, and ground-based instruments to monitor aerosols. (nasa.gov)
  • Starting in 2011, the Glory mission will enable scientists to better characterize the types and distribution of aerosols. (nasa.gov)
  • At 3M, our scientists have carefully formulated our revolutionary, non-flammable 3Mâ„¢ Novecâ„¢ Aerosol Cleaners with the exact features and compatibility your business demands - without compromising worker safety or environmental protection. (3m.com)
  • Our scientists intentionally developed 3M Novec Aerosol Cleaners with high dielectric strength making them effective for use on energized components (less than 25 kV) and on a range of materials, including most plastics, metals, circuitry, printed circuit boards (PCBs) and more. (3m.com)
  • Scientists and technicians responsible for the data use another copy of CPD3 on their desktop or laptop computers to review the data for quality and completeness, flag or remove contaminated or invalid data, reformat and export the data for analysis with other software, and submit the data for archiving and public access at the WMO World Data Center for Aerosols (WDCA). (noaa.gov)
  • NASA
  • NASA co-sponsors a global network of ground sensors called the Aerosols Robotic Network, or AERONET, which is comprised of more than 200 carefully calibrated sun photometers measuring aerosol optical depth around the world. (nasa.gov)
  • uncertainty
  • Aerosols contribute significantly to the uncertainty in climate sensitivity because we cannot model their historical impact on the temperature record with sufficient accuracy, though additional constraints on climate sensitivity such as the last ice age do exist . (realclimate.org)
  • But the interaction with aerosols bumps up methane's relative global warming potential (GWP) to about 33, though there is a lot of uncertainty around the exact figure. (scientificamerican.com)
  • cloud
  • The relatively simple instruments deduce the amount and type of aerosol in the sky by measuring the intensity of light under cloud-free conditions. (nasa.gov)
  • chemistry
  • But in relation to the issue of aerosols, chemistry and climate, I read yesterday (h/t Atmoz ) probably the most boneheaded article that I have seen in ages (and that's saying a lot). (realclimate.org)
  • We introduce the readers to the basics of physical chemistry of aerosols. (springer.com)
  • indicates
  • An optical depth of less than 0.05 indicates a clear sky with relatively few aerosols and maximum visibility, whereas a value of 1 indicates hazy conditions. (nasa.gov)
  • sunlight
  • AVHRR, a passive radiometer, measured the intensity of sunlight as it reflected off aerosols, using the dark ocean as the background. (nasa.gov)
  • Most aerosols are brighter than land or ocean, and cool the Earth by reflecting sunlight back to space. (nasa.gov)