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  • concentrations
  • Removed from the vicinity of sources (as in regional air pollution), SO 2 and sulphates often occur in concentrations of about equal magnitudes, in Europe up towards 30 µg/m 3 as long term averages. (europa.eu)
  • We investigate the impact of the choice of gas-phase and aerosol mechanisms, on the simulated summertime concentrations of several pollutants over the eastern Mediterranean, using the WRF-Chem model. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • The selection of mechanisms significantly affects ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations, and to a lesser extent other gaseous pollutants (NO x , CO). Meteorological components are also affected by the choice of mechanisms due to the interaction of aerosols with radiation. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • Concentrations of some aerosols have decreased over the United States and Europe in recent decades as a result of environmental laws, although an increase has been observed in many thrid world regions, where economic development is a priority. (realclimate.org)
  • Aerosol concentrations have been measured downwind of sources over the past few decades, but the number of observing sites is limited and the analysis is laborious. (realclimate.org)
  • Future changes in aerosol concentrations will influence the climate system over the coming decades. (springer.com)
  • The aerosol concentrations are based on a set of scenarios similar to RCP6.0, developed using the IMAGE integrated assessment model and exploring stringent and weaker air pollution control. (springer.com)
  • Reductions in aerosol concentrations lead to an increase in downward surface solar radiation under all-sky conditions in various parts of the world, especially in Asia where the local brightening may reach about 10 Wm −2 . (springer.com)
  • North America
  • This time is too short for them to be mixed uniformly throughout the globe (unlike CO 2 ), so there are large regional variations in aerosol radiative forcing, with the largest effects predictably downwind of industrial centers like the east coast of North America, Europe, and East Asia. (realclimate.org)
  • atmospheric chemistry
  • Not coincidentally, the Charney sensitivity corresponds exactly to the sensitivity one gets with a standard atmospheric GCM with a simple mixed-layer ocean, while the Earth System sensitivity would correspond to the response in a (as yet non-existent) model that included interactive components for the cryosphere, biosphere, ocean, atmospheric chemistry and aerosols. (realclimate.org)
  • decades
  • First, Ruckstuhl et al found that as aerosols have decreased in Europe over the last few decades (as a result of environmental standards legislation), the amount of solar radiation at the ground has increased while the amount reflected to space has decreased. (realclimate.org)
  • global
  • While it would be true that if global aerosol levels declined it would lead to increased global warming, aerosol trends in Asia are increasing strongly, even while those in the US and Europe are dropping. (realclimate.org)
  • Since the late 1970's, satellite instruments have detected aerosols routinely with nearly global coverage. (realclimate.org)
  • In this study we evaluate the equilibrium climate response to aerosol reductions in different parts of the world in 2050, using the global climate model EC-Earth. (springer.com)
  • increase
  • This is mainly because the presence of sulfate and nitrate causes the aerosols to increase to a size that scatters light effectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The associated increase in surface temperature may be as high as 0.5 °C. This signal is dominated by the reduced cooling effect of sulphate which in some areas is partially compensated by the decreased warming effect of black carbon. (springer.com)
  • strongly
  • Another important aerosol type is elemental carbon (EC, also known as black carbon, BC): this aerosol type includes strongly light-absorbing material and is thought to yield large positive radiative forcing. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • In addition to possible distal effects on monsoons, the aerosol formed cannot be contained to say within a few degrees of its formation and may require much more than if the area of interest to have the sunlight reduced is for example, 80 degrees N to the pole. (realclimate.org)
  • levels
  • And the models in conjunction with laboratory experiments suggest that the fall in levels of Carbonyl Sulphide and rise of sulphate aerosols taken together would have been responsible for creating snowball earth, the planetwide ice-age hypothesised to have taken place near the end of the Archean eon 2500 million years ago. (eurekalert.org)