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  • C2C12
  • Neither androgens affected cell proliferation after up to 7 days treatment, nor was there a synergistic effect of androgens on the proliferative response of C2C12 cells to IGF-I treatment. (springer.com)
  • C2C12-AR cell proliferation, differentiation, and protein content were analyzed in response to androgen treatment. (springer.com)
  • Our data demonstrated that androgen treatment does not alter either proliferation rate or differentiation rate of C2C12-AR cells. (springer.com)
  • It is for this reason that, in this study, we make use of the firefly luciferase ( fluc ) reporter gene sequence contained within the fusion gene and bioluminescence imaging (BLI) for the short-term localization of viable C2C12 myoblasts following implantation into a mouse model of DMD (muscular dystrophy on the X chromosome [mdx] mouse) 12-14 . (jove.com)
  • gene
  • NP receptor type A (NPRA) gene expression was positively correlated to mRNA levels of PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC1A) and several oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes in human skeletal muscle. (jci.org)
  • In some mice, overexpression of the dendritic cell growth factor Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) was enforced prior to adoptive transfer of CDPs, using hydrodynamic gene transfer (HGT) of Flt3L-encoding plasmid. (jove.com)
  • Based on our data, the fact that IFITM1 can function as a negative regulator of cell proliferation, and because the gene maps to chromosome band 11p15.5, previously associated with NSCLC, it is likely that IFITM1 in man has a key role in tumor formation. (jove.com)
  • Disruption of the neurotrophin-3 receptor gene trkC eliminates Ia muscle afferents and results in abnormal movements," Nature , vol. 368, no. 6468, pp. 249-251, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the relationship between postnatal muscle growth and gene expression through the analysis of the transcriptome have never been investigated. (ijbs.com)
  • All three Gαi isoforms have been deleted by gene targeting in mice, and the resulting phenotypes indicate that they have both overlapping and distinct functions. (asm.org)
  • We investigated strictly noninvasively the gastrocnemius muscle function of a mouse model carrying a mutation in the ACTA1 gene (H40Y). (jove.com)
  • The H19 gene, one of the best known imprinted genes, encodes a long non-coding RNA that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • There might be mechanisms or factors in cardiac differentiation that could be identified by systematic gene expression analysis during postnatal cardiac development. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Global gene expression analysis in the whole heart may be useful in understanding the orchestrated process of postnatal development or terminal differentiation in the cardiac environment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Double-muscled (DM) cattle have a loss-of-function mutation in their myostatin gene responsible for the hypermuscular phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies during the past decade have shown that the product of the gene myostatin ( GDF8 ) (a muscle-specific TGFβ family member) is an inhibitor of muscle development and of the maintenance of muscle mass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • neonatal
  • Previous studies focused investigation on the rapid growth of neonatal skeletal muscle of pigs due to its ability to markedly increase protein synthesis in response to feeding, a response that declines rapidly with development [ 3 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • This study used Affymetrix Porcine GeneChip to acquire a comprehensive picture of transcriptional adaptations in skeletal muscle of nursing piglets and, subsequently to identity genes that may play important roles in the growth of neonatal skeletal muscle. (ijbs.com)
  • myofiber
  • Of particular interest are potential mechanisms that underlie the ability of basal vertebrates to undergo considerable postlarval skeletal myofiber hyperplasia ( i.e. teleost fish) and full regeneration following appendage loss ( i.e. urodele amphibians). (jove.com)
  • The in vivo process of muscle regeneration with respect to satellite cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation can be partly recapitulated through suspension culture of myofiber explants (Rosenblatt et al . (bio-protocol.org)
  • The process of myofiber isolation which involves digestion of muscle tissue with matrix-degrading enzymes ( e.g ., collagenases) and mechanical shearing causes minor trauma which leads to the activation of satellite cells on myofibers. (bio-protocol.org)
  • fetal
  • For almost 30 years, scientists have demonstrated that human fetal ICCs transplanted under the kidney capsule of nude mice matured into functioning endocrine cells, as evidenced by a significant increase in circulating human C-peptide following glucose stimulation 1-9 . (jove.com)
  • In order to identify individual genes or networks that may be myostatin targets, we looked for genes that were differentially expressed between DM and normal (NM) animals (n = 3 per group) in the semitendinosus muscle (hypertrophied in DM animals) at 260 days of fetal development (when the biochemical differentiation of muscle is intensive). (biomedcentral.com)
  • functional
  • Induction of functional tissue-engineered skeletal muscle constructs by defined electrical stimulation. (abcam.com)
  • With improvement in muscle function being the most important end point in these trials, a lot of emphasis has been placed on setting up reliable, reproducible, and easy to perform functional tests to pre clinically assess muscle function, strength, condition, and coordination in the mdx mouse model for DMD. (jove.com)
  • Although it is well known that the number of satellite cells increases following physical exercise, functional alterations in satellite cells such as proliferative capacity and differentiation efficiency following exercise and their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. (hindawi.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that the number of satellite cells is increased by long-term or acute exercise training in humans and animals [ 4 , 5 ] and decreases during aging in conjunction with a reduction in the muscle quality and functional potential [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • There have been few studies examining functional alterations in satellite cells such as proliferative capacity and differentiation efficiency following exercise. (hindawi.com)
  • Mice deficient for mTORC2 signaling in developing muscle were viable and showed no histological and functional alterations of skeletal muscle. (unibas.ch)
  • Thus, the myostatin loss-of-function mutation affected several physiological processes involved in the development and determination of the functional characteristics of muscle tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • unclear
  • Pubmed ID: 12225973 Loss of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex from muscle sarcolemma in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) renders the membrane susceptible to mechanical injury, leaky to Ca(2+), and disrupts signaling, but the precise mechanism(s) leading to the onset of DMD remain unclear. (jove.com)
  • MyoD
  • The impaired differentiation is consistent with the observation that the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and Myf5 are downregulated upon knockdown of Gαi2. (asm.org)
  • Myf5
  • On muscle injury, these Pax7 + cells become activated and begin to proliferate into fusion-competent myoblasts that have been shown to express the muscle regulatory transcription factor (MRF) Myf5 ( 4 , 25 , 45 ). (physiology.org)
  • oxidative
  • Here, we investigated the physiological role of NP on the oxidative metabolism of human skeletal muscle. (jci.org)
  • We propose that NP could contribute to exercise training-induced improvement in skeletal muscle fat oxidative capacity in humans. (jci.org)
  • Cytoglobin is a hemoprotein expressed in response to oxidative stress in a variety of tissues, including striated muscle. (pnas.org)
  • myogenesis
  • Thus, an enhanced understanding of cytoglobin's role in myogenesis may enable the development of therapeutic approaches for treating patients with muscle injuries and other neuromuscular disorders. (pnas.org)
  • A better understanding of the processes and proteins involved in myogenesis and muscle regeneration may enable the design of innovative therapies to improve the care of victims of severe muscle trauma, patients with skeletal myopathies, and the elderly. (pnas.org)
  • Over the course of a mammal's lifetime, the maintenance, adaptation, and repair of skeletal muscle depend on the continual ability to initiate myogenesis ( 4 , 5 , 10 ⇓ - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • protein synthesis
  • Effects of testosterone replacement on muscle mass and muscle protein synthesis in hypogonadal men-a clinical research center study. (springer.com)
  • Griggs RC, Kingston W, Jozefowicz RF, Herr BE, Forbes G, Halliday D. Effect of testosterone on muscle mass and muscle protein synthesis. (springer.com)
  • Short-term oxandrolone administration stimulates net muscle protein synthesis in young men. (springer.com)
  • These works identified components belonging to insulin and amino acid signaling pathways that lead to translation initiation, and examined ontogenic changes in protein abundance and activation of the components that contribute to the developmental changes of muscle protein synthesis. (ijbs.com)
  • Accordingly, raptor-depleted myoblasts showed severe defects in proliferation, most probably caused by reduced rates of protein synthesis. (unibas.ch)
  • receptor
  • Immunoblotting of wild-type muscle lysates revealed that, not only were Id1 and Id3 highly upregulated within 24 h after injury, but other upstream components of the BMP pathway were as well, including the BMP receptor type II and phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 (pSmad1/5/8). (physiology.org)
  • embryos
  • The knockdown of Ifitm1 in mouse embryos provided evidence for a role in somitogenesis. (jove.com)
  • defects
  • Furthermore, mouse models utilizing a polyalanine tract expansion mutation have illustrated critical developmental differences between null mutations and expansion mutations in the brain, revealing context-specific defects. (jove.com)
  • Depletion of raptor, an essential protein of mTORC1, in muscle progenitors caused the mice to die perinatally because of severe defects in muscle development. (unibas.ch)
  • occurs
  • cells that occurs in mice null for Arx. (jove.com)
  • Because muscle injury is a random event that occurs under a variety of biomechanical conditions, it is difficult to study. (jove.com)
  • fiber
  • In addition and in line with muscle mass results, HMB treatment did not attenuate CSA decrease in all fiber types against either immobilization or dexamethasone treatment. (jove.com)