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  • Experiments
  • The experiments indicated how to reprogram nuclei from differentiated cells to produce live offspring, and that a single population of differentiated cells could produce multiple offspring. (asu.edu)
  • In his experiments, Bridges studied Drosophila, the common fruit fly, and by doing so showed that a process called nondisjunction caused chromosomes, under some circumstances, to fail to separate when forming sperm and egg cells. (asu.edu)
  • 1965
  • Lockshin and Williams used this doctoral research as the basis for five articles, with the main title "Programmed Cell Death," that were published between 1964 and 1965 in the Journal of Insect Physiology. (asu.edu)
  • oocyte
  • More specifically, a nucleus from a cell of the donor individual is inserted into an oocyte whose own nuclear DNA has been removed (enucleation). (pnas.org)
  • Spindle replacement, also called spindle transfer, is the process of removing the genetic material found in the nucleus of one egg cell, or oocyte, and placing it in another egg that had its nucleus removed. (asu.edu)
  • clone
  • The cell used as the donor for the cloning of Dolly was taken from a mammary gland , and the production of a healthy clone therefore proved that a cell taken from a specific part of the body could recreate a whole individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1995, Campbell and his scientific team used cells grown and differentiated in a laboratory to clone sheep for the first time. (asu.edu)
  • nuclei
  • A series of nuclear divisions will occur without cytokinesis (division of the cell) in the zygote to form a multi-nucleated cell (a cell containing multiple nuclei) known as a syncytium . (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. (pnas.org)
  • The cell used as the donor for the cloning of Nam was taken from a mammary gland . (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • Nondisjunction, as described by Bridges, caused sperm or egg cells to contain abnormal amounts of chromosomes. (asu.edu)
  • genetically
  • In cell biology, it is the propagation of a progenitor cell to obtain a population of genetically identical cells whereas, in animal biology, cloning refers to the production of genetic copies of individual animals using nuclear transfer. (pnas.org)
  • Purkinje
  • Jan Evangelista Purkyne, also called Johannes or Johann Evangelist Purkinje, studied cells in the cerebellum, fibers of the heart, subjective visual phenomenon, and germinal vesicle, in eastern Europe during the early nineteenth century. (asu.edu)
  • Dolly
  • Even though Dolly was not the first animal cloned, she received media attention because she was the first cloned from an adult cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016 scientists reported no defects in thirteen cloned sheep, including four from the same cell line as Dolly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Campbell and his team also cloned a sheep from adult cells in 1996, which they named Dolly. (asu.edu)
  • cleavage
  • After cleavage , the dividing cells, or morula , becomes a hollow ball, or blastula , which develops a hole or pore at one end. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in amphibians, rabbits, and mice suggested that the very early cleavage stages (two-cell to four-cell) were flexible and that each blastomere could yield a viable blastocyst. (pnas.org)
  • Prior to the blastocyst stage, cells in the early embryo, called blastomeres, divide without increasing in mass between each division: thus the term cleavage divisions-each cell cleaves in half. (pnas.org)
  • The Potency of the First Two Cleavage Cells in Echinoderm Development. (asu.edu)
  • Mitochondria
  • Mitochondria are organelles found in all cells and contain some of the cell's genetic material. (asu.edu)
  • Lynn Petra Alexander Sagan Margulis was an American biologist, whose work in the mid-twentieth century focused on cells living together in a mutually advantageous relationship, studied cells and mitochondria in the US during the second half of the twentieth century. (asu.edu)
  • She developed a theory for the origin of eukaryotic cells, that proposed two kinds of structures found in eukaryotic cells mitochondria in animals, and plastids in plantsÑwere once free-living bacteria that lived harmoniously and in close proximity to larger cells, a scenario called symbiosis. (asu.edu)
  • sheep
  • After a certain number of cell divisions, the ball of cells was implanted into a pseudo-pregnant sheep. (bioedonline.org)
  • They reported their results in the article 'Sheep Cloned by Nuclear Transfer from a Cultured Cell Line' in March 1996. (asu.edu)
  • nerve cells
  • Previous research showed that altering the Foxp2 protein changed how neurons grew, so Vernes and Fisher hypothesized that Foxp2 would affect gene networks that involved in the development of neurons, or nerve cells. (asu.edu)
  • Ganglia are clusters of nerve cells, from which nerve fibers emerge. (asu.edu)
  • genes
  • Two kinase genes, a family related to cell division, were mutated in two self-employed sides lines. (chenglilab.org)
  • Shoukhrat Mitalipov, Masahito Tachibana, and their team of researchers replaced the mitochondrial genes of primate embryonic stem cells via spindle transfer. (asu.edu)
  • In gene therapy, researchers insert normal genes into cells that have missing or defective genes in order to correct genetic disorders. (asu.edu)
  • differentiate
  • At Columbia University in New York City, New York, Wilson studied what causes cells to differentiate during development. (asu.edu)
  • divide
  • The hybrid cell is then stimulated to divide by an electric shock, and when it develops into a blastocyst it is implanted in a surrogate mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • The Cell in Development and Inheritance, by Edmund Beecher Wilson, provided a textbook introduction to cell biology for generations of biologists in the twentieth century. (asu.edu)
  • stimulation
  • 5. Adult neurogenesis under pathological stimulation: Ischemia. (indigo.ca)
  • Increased Nanog expression alleviates the requirement for BMP and gp130 receptor stimulation and allows factor-independent ES cell self-renewal. (springer.com)
  • Development
  • Their results confirmed that Foxp2 affected the development of gene networks involved in the growth of neurons, as well as networks that are involved in cell specialization and cell communication. (asu.edu)
  • human
  • Takahashi and Yamanaka also experimented with human cell cultures in 2007. (asu.edu)
  • proteins
  • Enzymes are types of proteins that can catalyze reactions inside cells, reactions that produce a number of things, including nutrients that the cell needs. (asu.edu)
  • Breakdown
  • Newborn infants that experience jaundice, the yellowing of the skin and eyes, have a buildup of bilirubin, a chemical that occurs during red blood cell breakdown, or hemolysis. (asu.edu)