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  • Dolly
  • Harry Griffin, the institute's assistant director, says that to make Dolly, 277 cloned cells were implanted into temporary surrogate mothers to identify those that began to develop normally. (dhushara.com)
  • Debbie, Denise, Dianna and Daisy were all cloned using cells from the same adult sheep as Dolly, who, 20 years ago, was the first mammal ever to be successfully cloned. (newscientist.com)
  • Dolly and her siblings were created using a technique called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), in which an adult cell nucleus is inserted into an unfertilized donor egg whose own nucleus has been removed. (newscientist.com)
  • To create Dolly, Ian Wilmut and his team at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, UK, had to apply the technique to 277 eggs. (newscientist.com)
  • Researchers also discussed plans to derive stem cells from embryos made by a process called somatic-cell nuclear transfer - the same method used to create cloned animals such as Dolly the sheep - in which the nucleus from an adult donor cell is transferred into a human egg that has had its nucleus removed. (nature.com)
  • The term "stem cell research" was until recent years to be found only in obscure scientific and medical journals, but since the phenomenon of Dolly the sheep less than a decade ago most people have heard the phrase. (marxist.com)
  • By carefully controlling the fertilised cell and using the female sheep as a carrier of the fertilised cell, Wilmut created Dolly - an exact copy of the Dorset Finn sheep. (marxist.com)
  • The resulting organism (Dolly for instance) will not be a unique one-of-a-kind organism, but will be almost exactly like the adult whose cell was used for the cloning. (hawkhill.com)
  • Earlier this year, Scottish researchers revealed that they had cloned Dolly from the cell of an adult sheep (This Week, 1 March, p 4). (dhushara.com)
  • Since the cloning of Dolly the Sheep over a decade ago, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been considered a promising way to generate personalized stem cells to repair the body without fear of tissue rejection. (bio-medicine.org)
  • If the embryo were implanted in a uterus, it could develop into a clone of the DNA donor, which is how Dolly was created. (stabroeknews.com)
  • The company had inserted DNA from adult human cells into cow's eggs using a nuclear transfer technique similar to the one used to clone Dolly, the first mammal cloned from an adult cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • cows
  • If you're a breeder with money, Advanced Cell Technologies will do it for you The only reason that's not news is that cows are boring. (yarchive.net)
  • A team at Advanced Cell Technology (ACT) in Massachusetts, working with Malcolm Moore of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, cloned skin cells from two cows. (futurepundit.com)
  • They then injected blood-forming stem cells (which also give rise to immune cells) from the cloned fetuses back into the cows. (futurepundit.com)
  • The cloned cells seemed to have an amazing ability to take over from adult ones, replacing up to 50 per cent of the cows' blood stem cells after just one infusion, even in the cow whose immune system was untouched. (futurepundit.com)
  • Upon reflection, my interpretation: First, they took skin cells from the cows. (futurepundit.com)
  • Then they cloned them by putting their nucleuses into unfertilized eggs (from the same or different cows? (futurepundit.com)
  • Then they injected those blood stem cells back into the adult cows that had been cloned. (futurepundit.com)
  • More than 10 clones of adult cattle have been implanted in cows and are due to be born over the next few months. (dhushara.com)
  • In 1994, Neal First of the University of Wisconsin in Madison cloned cows using the cells of a developing embryo. (dhushara.com)
  • taking eggs from slaughtered cows, inserting genetically-altered cell nuclei containing a 'marker' gene and culturing the eggs. (dhushara.com)
  • Those eggs are then shipped to the Franklin, Texas, ranch where they are 'implanted in just regular, ordinary cows,' Dr Robl said. (dhushara.com)
  • Due to the serious shortage of human donor eggs, cows, rabbits, and other animals have long been considered an attractive surrogate source of eggs. (bio-medicine.org)
  • chromosomes
  • When all the environmental conditions are right, the single fertilized egg quivers, doubles its chromosomes, and divides in two. (hawkhill.com)
  • Consummation occurs once 23 chromosomes of each male and female gamete are combined into a single cell, the zygote. (thomaslarson.com)
  • However, the SPECIES (biological class or category) to which an individual belongs is determined only by the number of nuclear chromosomes per cell. (all.org)
  • When a human cell contains only 23 chromosomes, it is called haploid. (all.org)
  • The final effect of gametogenesis is the production of haploid sex gametes: the sperm and oocyte, which have only 23 chromosomes in each cell. (all.org)
  • aborted fetuses
  • As reported by The Sunday Times , these germ cells proved to be absolutely identical to the natural human stem cells taken from aborted fetuses. (medicaldaily.com)
  • The first technique involves harvesting eggs from aborted fetuses and fertilizing them with sperm in the laboratory. (eppc.org)
  • Dr. Tal Biron-Shental, the lead researcher involved in harvesting eggs from aborted fetuses, offered this all-too-characteristic ethical reflection on her work: "I'm fully aware of the controversy about this - but probably, in some place, it will be ethically acceptable. (eppc.org)
  • One reason to take eggs from aborted fetuses is that they are easier to get. (eppc.org)
  • For those infertile couples who are interested in keeping reproduction "within the marriage," so to speak, using eggs from aborted fetuses might have an additional appeal, for there is no living female rival with a claim to motherhood. (eppc.org)
  • nuclei
  • The research of Ian's own group is directed toward understanding the mechanisms that bring about reprogramming of nuclei and with exploiting new opportunities for reprogramming cells to study degenerative diseases, such as motor neuron disease. (royalsociety.org)
  • Schrepfer, who heads the Transplant and Stem Cell Immunobiology Laboratory in Hamburg, used cells that were created by transferring the nuclei of adult mouse cells into enucleated eggs cells from genetically different mice. (healthcanal.com)
  • Cibelli transferred nuclear DNA from 34 of his own cheek cells and 18 lymphocyte cells into cow oocytes from which the nuclei had been removed. (sciencemag.org)
  • SCNT
  • Nonfundable lines include, without limitation, those produced from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), from parthenogenesis, and from IVF embryos that were specifically created for research, rather than for reproductive, purposes. (thehastingscenter.org)
  • This could lead to the realistic prospect of using SCNT to generate stem cells for therapeutic purposes in humans," says Sinclair. (newscientist.com)
  • The promise of the SCNT method is that the nucleus of a patient's skin cell, for example, could be used to create pluripotent cells that might be able to repair a part of that patient's body. (healthcanal.com)
  • One attraction of SCNT has always been that the genetic identity of the new pluripotent cell would be the same as the patient's, since the transplanted nucleus carries the patient's DNA," said cardiothoracic surgeon Sonja Schrepfer , MD, PhD, a co-senior author of the study, published online Nov. 20 in Cell Stem Cell . (healthcanal.com)
  • A dozen years ago, when Irving Weissman , MD, professor of pathology and of developmental biology at Stanford, headed a National Academies panel on SCNT cells, he raised the possibility that the immune system of a patient who received the cells might still react against proteins from the cells' mitochondria, which act as the energy factories for the cell and have their own DNA. (healthcanal.com)
  • This reaction could occur because cells created through SCNT contain mitochondria from the egg donor and not from the patient, and therefore could still look like foreign tissue to the recipient's immune system, said Weissman, the other co-senior author of the paper. (healthcanal.com)
  • When transplanted back into the nucleus donor strain, the cells were rejected although there were only two single nucleotide substitutions in the mitochondrial DNA of these SCNT-derived cells compared to that of the nucleus donor. (healthcanal.com)
  • The immunological reactions reported in the new paper will be a consideration if clinicians ever use SCNT-derived stem cells in human therapy, but such reactions should not prevent their use, Weissman said. (healthcanal.com)
  • This research informs us of the margin of safety that would be required if, in the distant future, we need to use SCNT to create pluripotent cells to produce the tissue stem cells to treat someone," he said. (healthcanal.com)
  • What advocates of H.B. 2255 and H.B. 2098 are not telling people is that SCNT could be a critical component of efforts to find cures through embryonic stem cell research. (americanprogress.org)
  • Missouri's stem cell ballot initiative that passed in 2006 banned reproductive cloning but not SCNT, although conservatives attempted to conflate the two during and after the campaign. (americanprogress.org)
  • These headlines are based on newly published research into the use of a technique known as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) as part of embryonic stem cell research. (www.nhs.uk)
  • However, there remain ethical concerns over the implications of using SCNT to develop stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Robert Lanza
  • Dr. Robert Lanza of Advanced Cell Technology of Worcester, Mass., one of the participants in the study, said it was the first to study the health of cloned animals well into adulthood, and was the best evidence yet showing that cloned animals can produce healthy and functional cells. (semissourian.com)
  • We examined the factors recently used to reprogram skin cells (to induce pluripotent stem cells)," said Robert Lanza, MD, Chief Scientific Officer at ACT, and senior author of the study. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Without regulations in place, such embryos could also be used for human reproductive cloning, although this would be unsafe and grossly unethical," said Dr Robert Lanza, chief scientist of Massachusetts-based biotech Advanced Cell Technology and a co-author of the new study. (stabroeknews.com)
  • Regenerative Medicine
  • Senior Editor of the journal "Regenerative Medicine", Chair of the BioIndustry Association, Regenerative Medicine and Cell Therapy Industry Group, Founder and CEO of the London Regenerative Medicine Network, and Trustee of the UK Stem Cell Foundation. (royalsociety.org)
  • the UK-Israel Science Council, UK Regenerative Medicine Expert Group, the Scientific Advisory Panel of the UK Cell Therapy Catapult, and the Strategic Advisory Board of the Canadian Centre for the Commercialization of Regenerative Medicine. (royalsociety.org)
  • Weissman is the Virginia and D.K. Ludwig Professor for Clinical Investigation in Cancer Research and the director of the Stanford Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine . (healthcanal.com)
  • The ISSCR is an independent non-profit organization that was established in 2002 to provide a forum for communication and education in the emerging field of stem-cell research and regenerative medicine. (nature.com)
  • nuclear transfer
  • But the reality is that a new human being was produced by the cloning technique (somatic cell nuclear transfer. (cmda.org)
  • But it would also criminalize a biomedical research procedure called somatic cell nuclear transfer that some geneticists and doctors believe holds promise as a way to produce stem cells for tissue repair and therapy. (natcath.org)
  • One method of creating pluripotent stem cells is called somatic cell nuclear transfer, and involves taking the nucleus of an adult cell and injecting it into an egg cell from which the nucleus has been removed. (healthcanal.com)
  • The definition may make sense for opponents of embryonic stem cell research who believe that embryos are human beings, but there is also a tactical reason for the position-while 68 percent of Kansans support somatic cell nuclear transfer, there is also strong opposition to reproductive cloning. (americanprogress.org)
  • fetus
  • Dr. Gearhart took cells from the region of the fetus that was destined to develop into the testes or the ovaries. (diabeticgourmet.com)
  • HDN is a reactionary disease in which an Rh Negative Mother rejects her Rh Positive Fetus by instictively attacking the red blood cells of the Fetus. (africaresource.com)
  • Generation of ZZUi008-A, a transgene-free, induced pluripotent stem cell line derived from chorionic villi cells of a fetus with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • clone
  • Given that the alternative is to accept a donation of sperm or egg, and so have a child that is genetically half their own, there will be couples who would prefer to try for a child who is a clone of one of them. (dhushara.com)
  • Did they inject each cow's clone-derived stem cells into the other cow in the pair? (futurepundit.com)
  • In the age of embryo cloning, there is no reason the embryonic clone of a man cannot be used to provide eggs with a male genome or the embryonic clone of a woman used to produce sperm with a female genome. (eppc.org)
  • Our group and others have successfully used eggs to clone closely-related species (for instance, we cloned two endangered species - the guar and banteng using cow eggs). (bio-medicine.org)
  • cow's
  • A small, privately held company in Worcester, Massachusetts-Advanced Cell Technology Inc.-startled the scientific world last week by announcing that it had fused human DNA with a cow's egg to create a new type of human cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • organism
  • There isn't enough information than that in an organism which has more brain cells than it does DNA base pairs! (yarchive.net)
  • Human development begins when a sperm fertilizes an egg and creates a single cell that has the potential to form an entire organism. (diabeticgourmet.com)
  • Unlike all of the other cells in an adult body, eggs and sperms each contain only half the information needed to produce a new organism. (hawkhill.com)
  • This single cell, called a zygote, contains all of the information needed to produce a new and uniquely new organism. (hawkhill.com)
  • In cloning, a non-sexual cell from an adult organism is used to produce a new organism. (hawkhill.com)
  • therapeutic
  • Thus, the NIH draft guidelines prohibit federal funding of work on at least two kinds of stem cell lines that have theoretical therapeutic potential beyond that of cell lines derived from "excess" IVF embryos. (thehastingscenter.org)
  • The rationale for this 'therapeutic cloning' was to provide a limitless source of dynamic cells with the same DNA as the cell donor. (nature.com)
  • Their findings demonstrate that single-parent stem cells can proliferate normally in an adult organ and could provide a less controversial alternative to the therapeutic cloning of embryonic stem cells. (science20.com)
  • There is an important report out in New Scientist about therapeutic cloning and the relative vigor of different stem cell types. (futurepundit.com)
  • The goal is to grow these embryonic stem cells in lab dishes and coax them to turn into specialized cells for therapeutic use against an illness the DNA donor has, such as Parkinson's disease, heart disease, multiple sclerosis or type-1 diabetes. (stabroeknews.com)
  • clump of cells
  • The 14 day cut-off is based on the earliest time at which the microscopic clump of cells starts to form the beginnings of what would eventually turn into the central nervous system. (lynnejones.org.uk)
  • ethical
  • His wide-ranging research established him as a leader in embryonic stem-cell biology, a field challenged by restricted funding and an enthusiasm for competing technologies that don't carry the same ethical baggage. (nature.com)
  • To many, the procedure skirts ethical and moral difficulties in creating new life from fertilizing an egg to harvest stem cells. (natcath.org)
  • Producing healthy eggs from iPS cells is potentially even more exciting than using embryonic stem cells, since iPS cells sidestep the ethical issues that plague those derived from embryos and because the resulting eggs would contain the same DNA as their donors. (time.com)
  • One advantage of this approach is that it does not use fertilized embryos to obtain stem cells, a technique that raises major ethical issues because the embryo is destroyed. (medindia.net)
  • The president asked NBAC to give him "as soon as possible … a thorough review" of the medical and ethical considerations of attempts to develop human stem cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • procedure
  • The current experiment used seven young women as egg donors (a procedure known to risk their health), collecting a total of 126 eggs for experiments, but resulting in only two cell lines. (cmda.org)
  • It is a much easier method than using today s existing stem cell lines or harvesting adult stem cells, which can be a painful and invasive procedure. (natcath.org)
  • And while the procedure to harvest eggs is not high-risk, the intervention is also not trivial. (eppc.org)
  • Cloning
  • The research, described in Thursday's online edition of the journal Cell Stem Cell , is a controversial advance likely to reopen the debate over the ethics of human cloning. (cmda.org)
  • Growing 'stem cells from adults using cloning techniques' sounds innocent, as if they had taken one heart cell and multiplied it in a dish. (cmda.org)
  • Cloning relies on eggs to make the new, living clones, no matter their intended final use. (cmda.org)
  • Are you sure they are commercially cloning from adult animals? (yarchive.net)
  • And the debate is not confined to cloning of cells, but also includes concerns over health care, how resources are used, who has access to the latest developments and how the health care system is going to pay for making new applications broadly available. (natcath.org)
  • Creating uniparental embryonic stem cells is actually much more efficient than generating embryonic stem cells by cloning," said K. (science20.com)
  • Possibly they used mitochondrial DNA for that purpose by using a different cow as the egg donor for the cloning. (futurepundit.com)
  • Although ABS won't release details of its new process pending patents, Bishop says the key breakthrough was establishing a 'genetically stable' cell line to serve as the basic stock for cloning. (dhushara.com)
  • The Massachusetts Legislature overturned Gov. Mitt Romney's veto of the stem-cell research bill that redefines the beginning of life as the time of implantation in the womb and paves the way for cloning. (thebostonpilot.com)
  • Although the embryo could grow to become an adult human being if implanted in a uterus, the new law bans that practice sometimes called reproductive cloning. (thebostonpilot.com)
  • Ongoing stem cell research and cloning debates in Kansas and other states highlight a new frontier in the stem cell debate: attempts to define scientific terms for political advantage. (americanprogress.org)
  • State-level opponents of stem cell research are trying to fill that void with altered scientific terminology that conflates human beings and embryos and overbroad definitions of human cloning. (americanprogress.org)
  • surrogate
  • The two healthy baby macaques were the only ones to survive to birth out of 127 altered egg cells implanted into more than 60 surrogate mothers. (ohmidog.com)
  • The team then divided the embryo into individual cells and grew these into new embryos before implanting them in surrogate mothers. (dhushara.com)
  • primordial
  • Take this abstract, from the June 2005 meeting of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology: "Because embryoid bodies sustain blood development, we reasoned that they might also support primordial germ cell formation. (eppc.org)
  • somatic cells
  • These cells were then combined with somatic cells from mouse ovaries to make "reconstituted ovaries," which they transplanted into the mice. (time.com)