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  • mice
  • Scientists have successfully changed the identity of one type of cell into another in living mice, potentially paving the way for new developments in the growth of replacement tissues used to treat a broad spectrum of diseases. (redorbit.com)
  • That's because the feat was performed in living mice rather than a lab dish, the process was efficient and it was achieved directly without going through a middleman like embryonic stem cells, he said. (redorbit.com)
  • The mice were then injected with viruses that slipped into enzyme-producing cells. (redorbit.com)
  • Immune cells in fetal blood are better at destroying leukaemia cells than adult cells, tests in mice suggest. (newscientist.com)
  • Veys and his colleagues compared the impact of injecting immune cells from adult or cord blood into mice with a form of human blood cancer called B-cell lymphoma. (newscientist.com)
  • Tumours rapidly disappeared in the mice that received the fetal immune cells, but kept growing in those that got the adult cells. (newscientist.com)
  • Maturation of human embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic progenitors into functional islets capable of treating pre-existing diabetes in mice. (springer.com)
  • Scientists say they've restored the vision of blind mice by introducing light-sensitive cells into the rodents' retinas. (freerepublic.com)
  • In the experiment, his team harvested these photoreceptor precursor cells from the retinas of newborn mice, whose eyes were still developing. (freerepublic.com)
  • They then transplanted these cells into the 'subretinal space' of the eyes of blind mice. (freerepublic.com)
  • While this study used photoreceptor precursor cells extracted from the eyes of newborn mice, MacLaren is confident that adult stem cells could also be genetically manipulated to produce high numbers of precursor cells in the lab. (freerepublic.com)
  • Mice with a human sickle-cell anemia disease trait have been treated successfully in a process that begins by directly reprogramming their own cells to an embryonic-stem-cell-like state, without the use of eggs. (scienceblog.com)
  • To create the IPS cells, the scientists started with cells from the skin of the diseased mice, explains lead author Jacob Hanna, a postdoctoral researcher in the Jaenisch lab. (scienceblog.com)
  • To decrease or eliminate possible cancer in the treated mice, the c-Myc gene was removed by genetic manipulation from the IPS cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • The scientists created such precursor cells from the IPS cells, replaced the defective blood-production gene in the precursor cells with a normal gene, and injected the resulting cells back into the diseased mice. (scienceblog.com)
  • Moreover, these cells showed potential as a cell replacement therapy in mice with cystic fibrosis. (eurekalert.org)
  • When the Club-iPL cells were administered to CFTR-deficient mice, the cells incorporated into tissue lining the respiratory tract and partially restored levels of CFTR in the lungs without inducing tumor formation. (eurekalert.org)
  • In what some have called a " groundbreaking advance ", three genes were added to pancreatic cells within living mice, and this was enough to directly change the cells into insulin-secreting cells. (frcblog.com)
  • In intestinal cells from adult mice, Shivdasani and his colleagues found a nearly complete archive of enhancers that were active in the formative stages of intestinal development. (newswise.com)
  • They further reported that transplantation of the iPS cells under the skin of mice resulted in tumors containing a variety of tissues representing the three primary types found in mammalian embryos. (bio-medicine.org)
  • exocrine cells
  • Image 2: In this immunofluorescent image of an adult mouse pancreas, exocrine cells into which three transcription factors have been inserted are displayed in green. (redorbit.com)
  • The Melton [ Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) co-director Doug Melton ] team reports in today's online edition of the journal Nature that, using a technique it is calling 'direct reprogramming,' the team is able to turn mouse exocrine cells, which make up about 95 percent of the pancreas, into precious and rare insulin-producing beta cells. (medgadget.com)
  • iPSCs
  • The scientists learned during the study that PHF20 is required for cellular reprogramming, because cells without PHF20 failed to generate iPSCs. (healthcanal.com)
  • University of Colorado Cancer Center researcher Chuan-Yuan Li, PhD, and his group have discovered that so-called "grim-reaper" caspase genes are the gatekeepers that can open the door to allow differentiated adult cells to regress to undifferentiated iPSCs. (healthcanal.com)
  • The assumption that cells derived from iPSCs are totally immune-tolerant has to be re-evaluated before considering human trials," warned lead investigator Yang Xu, a professor of biology at the University of California at San Diego. (medindia.net)
  • For now, ESCs remain "the gold standard" of versatile stem cells and should not be abandoned, in spite of the controversy surrounding them, in favour of iPSCs, he said. (medindia.net)
  • Xu said he suspected that the problem with iPSCs lay in errors that occur in the DNA code when the cells are reprogrammed. (medindia.net)
  • pancreas
  • Islet and whole pancreas transplantations provided the proof-of-concept of glucose homeostasis restoration after replenishment of the deficiency of β cells responsible for the disease. (springer.com)
  • These beta cells, which comrpise [ sic ] about one percent of the pancreas, are the cells that die off in Type I diabetes. (medgadget.com)
  • Eventually we learned that of the 1,100, only about 200 are actually expressed in cells that are involved in forming the pancreas. (medgadget.com)
  • Next,' Melton continued, 'we decided that of the 200, we only cared about the ones that are expressed in the key part of the pancreas where the beta cells are - and that got us down to about 28. (medgadget.com)
  • donors
  • When the team compared three of the disease-specific cultures with the cells generated from the healthy controls, they discovered that the diseased cells had many of the key molecular defects characteristic of the original donors' liver disorder. (scientificamerican.com)
  • tumors
  • Despite significant progress, these protocols remain limited by low yield and purity of the desired mature cell types, as well as the potential of immature cells to form tumors. (eurekalert.org)
  • But embryonic types of stem cells continue to show problems forming mature, functional cells, as well as their tendency to form tumors. (frcblog.com)
  • One problem with using iPS cells therapeutically is that the reprogramming process creates cells prone to forming tumors . (scientificamerican.com)
  • Reprogramming
  • The work is "a major leap" in reprogramming cells from one kind to another, said one expert not involved in the research, John Gearhart of the University of Pennsylvania. (redorbit.com)
  • This means that scientists may one day be able to replace dead cells by reprogramming nearby cells. (redorbit.com)
  • The work brings "more excitement to the idea of using reprogramming as a way to treat diabetes," said researcher Mark Kay of Stanford University, who is studying the approach with liver cells. (redorbit.com)
  • A modified version of iPS methodology, called interrupted reprogramming, allows for a highly controlled, potentially safer, and more cost-effective strategy for generating progenitor-like cells from adult cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Melton emphasized, however, that direct reprogramming does not in any way eliminate the need for, or value of, work with iPS cells or human embryonic stem cells. (medgadget.com)
  • In investigating Jmjd3 and its role in iPSC reprogramming, Wang's team found Jmjd3 has two previously unknown functions - it helps regulate cell growth and cellular aging and Jmjd3 deactivates another nuclear protein, PHF20. (healthcanal.com)
  • fetal
  • The results are a surprise because fetal immune cells haven't had the lifelong "training" that adult immune cells have had, yet they still seem to recognise and destroy abnormal cells. (newscientist.com)
  • About 99 percent of cells found in amniotic fluid are terminally differentiated cells mostly from fetal skin, which are shed into the amniotic fluid as a fetus develops. (scienceblog.com)
  • organs
  • This technology can theoretically be applied to almost any cell type that can be isolated and purified, and isolation of highly purified populations of adult cells from most organs is already possible with existing techniques. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cancer risk is not linked to different rates of adult stem-cell division in organs, a study suggests. (bionews.org.uk)
  • diseases
  • Amniotic fluid skin cells can be safely obtained from pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis at about 15 weeks of pregnancy as part of a diagnostic workup for chromosome aberrations and other genetic diseases. (scienceblog.com)
  • Developing cell lines from individual amniotic fluid samples can accelerate the development of existing targets for different diseases. (scienceblog.com)
  • We have pursued cell therapy for lung diseases for many years," Waddell says. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cultures representing two other hereditary liver diseases, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (a protein-folding disorder that leads to cell death and liver failure) and glycogen storage disease, type 1a (in which a liver enzyme deficiency impairs the body's glucose metabolism), also displayed disorder-specific abnormalities. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This proof-of-principle study shows 'for the first time…that human iPS cells can be used to model a diverse range of inherited diseases in adult cells,' the authors wrote in their paper , published online in The Journal of Clinical Investigation August 25. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The implications of this discovery for how we think about cells' capabilities, and for the future treatment of degenerative and other diseases, are potentially profound. (newswise.com)
  • Human embryonic stem cells might be used to treat a host of diseases. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In two different attempts to treat degenerative eye diseases with stem cells, three patients have been blinded, while disease progression has been stopped in a separate patient. (bionews.org.uk)
  • nerve cells
  • It could lead to treatments like growing new heart cells after a heart attack or nerve cells to treat disorders like ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease. (redorbit.com)
  • The millions of photoreceptors in the eye act as the retina's 'pixels,' interpreting incoming light and hooking up with nerve cells to transmit that information to the brain. (freerepublic.com)
  • immune
  • The transplant has an extra benefit: the new immune cells in the blood can help finish off any residual cancer cells that survived the chemotherapy. (newscientist.com)
  • But doctors thought this came at a price - if the immune cells in the cord blood are less aggressive to the recipient, then presumably they are also less aggressive to any residual leukaemia cells. (newscientist.com)
  • Certain kinds of these cells may be rejected by the immune system, which would thus doom them as an option for transplant, according to a study published online by the British science journal Nature. (medindia.net)
  • The responders were T cells -- the heavy artillery of the immune system, which are designed to destroy invading microbes. (medindia.net)
  • Melton
  • Although this is a huge scientific step, Douglas Melton, co-director of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute and a researcher with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, wrote in the journal Nature that the approach is not ready for people. (redorbit.com)
  • They identified the new cells as beta cells by their detailed appearance and behavior, and Melton said they've continued functioning for months. (redorbit.com)
  • Melton, who began his diabetes research in 1993 when his infant son was diagnosed with the illness, said he's obsessed with trying to find a new treatment or cure for Type 1 diabetes, in which beta cells are destroyed. (redorbit.com)
  • We need to attack problems from multiple angles,' said Melton, stressing that his lab is using several approaches and will continue to work with iPS and hES cells. (medgadget.com)
  • Melton has worked for years trying to make insulin-secreting cells from embryonic stem cells. (frcblog.com)
  • study's lead author
  • There remains today a need in stem cell research for an easily reprogrammable cell type," said the study's lead author, Dr. Katalin Polgar, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Cardiology and Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, Mount Sinai School of Medicine. (scienceblog.com)
  • One problem in liver research is that no one is able to grow liver cells in the lab,' says the study's lead author, Sheikh Tamir Rashid. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Biology
  • Biology textbooks say that once a cell matures to serve a specific role, like, say a red blood cell, it can never go back into a less mature state. (tvnewslies.org)
  • A recent paradigm-shift in cancer biology was the discovery that cancer is a disease resulting from dysregulation of adult stem cells. (conservapedia.com)