Loading...
  • differentiate
  • Embryonic stem cells are unique in that they are able to develop (or differentiate) into other types of cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Because stem cells have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into any specialized cell type, they have been heralded for their promise for treating a variety of diseases and conditions. (medgadget.com)
  • The cells in the outer cell mass become the placenta while the cells in the inner cell mass are pluripotent, meaning that they have the latent ability to differentiate and develop into all the different organs and tissues of the embryo's body. (childresearch.net)
  • Although those cells which expressed the markers were able to differentiate into muscle, adipogenic, osteogenic, nephrogenic, neural and endothelial cells, this did not necessarily occur from a homogenous population of undifferentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate to generate primitive ectoderm, which ultimately differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, under defined conditions, embryonic stem cells are capable of propagating themselves indefinitely in an undifferentiated state and have the capacity when provided with the appropriate signals to differentiate, presumably via the formation of precursor cells, to almost all mature cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stem cells can differentiate into all other cells in the human body and are the subject of much scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • It arises when cerebellar granule neurone progenitor (GNP) cells fail to properly migrate and differentiate. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cloned in suspension they form cardiospheres, which when cultured in a myogenic differentiation medium, attach and differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flt1+/Flt4+ CPCs derived from iPSCs were shown to engraft into the adult myocardium and robustly differentiate into cardiomyocytes with phenotypic and electrophysiologic characteristics of adult cardiomyocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potency: the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potency specifies the differentiation potential (the potential to differentiate into different cell types) of the stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Totipotent (a.k.a. omnipotent) stem cells can differentiate into embryonic and extraembryonic cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multipotent stem cells can differentiate into a number of cell types, but only those of a closely related family of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oligopotent stem cells can differentiate into only a few cell types, such as lymphoid or myeloid stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Properties of stem cells can be illustrated in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, in which single cells are assessed for their ability to differentiate and self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996
  • Then, in 1996, a team led by Ian Wilmut with Keith Campbell as the main (66% of the credit) contributor used the same technique and shocked the world by successfully cloning a sheep from adult mammary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • hESC
  • However, key challenges and concerns remain for human therapeutic cloning and for potential clinical application of NT-hESC. (ipscell.com)
  • They must be demonstrably better in some key way than induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells or traditional hESC made from IVF blastocysts or there's no point in making them. (ipscell.com)
  • Human iPS cells were first reported in 2007 and thus have a 7-year head start on NT-hESC. (ipscell.com)
  • On the other hand, one might say that the regulatory and scientific hurdles cleared by both hESC-based products and human iPS cell products might pave the way for NT-hESC and speed their translation to the clinic. (ipscell.com)
  • When making iPS cells we start with proliferative somatic cells and can essentially use as many as we want (e.g. tens of millions), while in contrast when making NT-hESC each line must be derived using a separate human egg. (ipscell.com)
  • According to modern stem cell researchers, Spain is one of the leaders in stem cell research and currently has one of the most progressive legislations worldwide with respect to hESC research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998, privately funded research led to the breakthrough discovery of human Embryonic stem cells (hESC). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • When the editors of Time screamed on the cover of their February 19, 2001 issue, "Human Cloning is Closer than You Think! (apologeticspress.org)
  • In 2001, he was also the first to clone an endangered species (a Gaur), and in 2003, he cloned an endangered wild ox (a Banteng) from the frozen skin cells of an animal that had died at the San Diego Zoo nearly a quarter-of-a-century earlier. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2001, George W. Bush requested a review of the NIH's guidelines, and after a policy discussion within his circle of supporters, implemented a policy in August of that year to limit the number of embryonic stem cell lines that could be used for research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, scientists at Texas A&M University created the first cloned cat, CC (CopyCat). (wikipedia.org)
  • A purebred Hereford calf clone named Chloe was born in 2001 at Kansas State University's purebred research unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Millie and Emma were two female Jersey cows cloned at the University of Tennessee in 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, Brazil cloned their first heifer, Vitória. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induced stem cells Epigenome editing Reik W, Dean W, Walter J (August 2001). (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • The skin cell nucleus was then fused with the donor egg cell. (www.nhs.uk)
  • That now looks possible, though far from easy: Out of 39 tries, the scientists created stem cells only once for each donor. (stabroeknews.com)
  • The goal is to grow these embryonic stem cells in lab dishes and coax them to turn into specialized cells for therapeutic use against an illness the DNA donor has, such as Parkinson's disease, heart disease, multiple sclerosis or type-1 diabetes. (stabroeknews.com)
  • However, these problems associated with histocompatibility may be solved using autologous donor adult stem cells, therapeutic cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique consists of taking an enucleated oocyte (egg cell) and implanting a donor nucleus from a somatic (body) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of the donor egg cell is removed and discarded, leaving it 'deprogrammed. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells genetically matched the donor organism from which they came.This gives them the ability to create patient specific pluripotent cells, which could then be used in therapies or disease research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Texas A&M University cloned a Black Angus bull named 86 Squared in 2000, after cells from his donor, Bull 86, had been frozen for 15 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood, which requires extraction through apheresis, wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation), and passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Megan and M
  • In the summer of 1995, five lambs were born, of which two - Megan and Morag - survived to become healthy fertile adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 1995 Keith Campbell and Bill Ritchie succeeded in producing a pair of lambs, Megan and Morag from embryonic cells, which had differentiated in culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • autologous
  • This would allow for derivation of patient-specific, autologous cells for cell therapy. (ung.si)
  • There are three known accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans: Bone marrow, which requires extraction by harvesting, that is, drilling into bone (typically the femur or iliac crest). (wikipedia.org)
  • Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ
  • Normally a female germ cell begins to divide when it has about 150 cells - at this point stem cells can be harvested. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Even within humans and other mortal species, there are cells with the potential for immortality: cancer cells which have lost the ability to die when maintained in a cell culture such as the HeLa cell line, and specific stem cells such as germ cells (producing ova and spermatozoa). (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of embryonic and foetal cells from all germ layers in the amniotic fluid was gradually determined since the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, Brinster has continued to advance the field of stem cell biology, having made a series of catalyzing, transformational discoveries utilizing male germ line stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, during the process of gametogenesis the primordial germ cells must have their original biparental DNA methylation patterns erased and re-established based on the sex of the transmitting parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orthologs of Oct-4 exist in humans and several other species including: Oct-4 contains the following protein domains: Oct-4 has been implicated in tumorigenesis of adult germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • live cloned
  • It should be noted that no babies were born as a result of this research, and the researchers had no intention of producing a live cloned human being. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Only the granulocytes were able to produce two live cloned pups, although both died within a few hours of birth. (medgadget.com)
  • nuclei
  • Granulocytes are well characterized white blood cells unique for their segmented nuclei and the numerous granules in the cells' cytoplasm. (medgadget.com)
  • The genetic material of the cells has been removed, and adult cell nuclei are being injected in its place with a needle (lower left). (sciencephoto.com)
  • therapies
  • Current research focuses on differentiating ES into a variety of cell types for eventual use as cell replacement therapies (CRTs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Campbell believed all potential stem cell populations should be used for both basic and applied research which may provide basic scientific knowledge and lead to the development of cell therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • For example, in May and June 1997, I authored a series on "Cloning-Scientific and Biblical Ramifications. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Gene, the first cloned calf in the world was born in 1997 at the American Breeders Service facilities in Deforest, Wisconsin, United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus of a somatic
  • The process involves sucking out the nucleus of a somatic (body) cell and injecting it into an oocyte that has had its nucleus removed Using an approach based on the protocol outlined by Tachibana et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolate
  • It should also be possible to isolate stem cells from the transplanted individual, which can themselves be transplanted into another individual without HSCs, demonstrating that the stem cell was able to self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • They repeated the process - this time starting with the genetic material extracted from the skin cells of a much older man. (wunc.org)
  • Other potential uses of embryonic stem cells include investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some in the press speculated that a contributing factor to Dolly's death was that she could have been born with a genetic age of six years, the same age as the sheep from which she was cloned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lanza demonstrated that techniques used in preimplantation genetic diagnosis could be used to generate embryonic stem cells without embryonic destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human iPS cells were created from skin cells by direct delivery of proteins, thus eliminating the harmful risks associated with genetic and chemical manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2004, the first commercially cloned cat, Little Nicky, was created by Genetic Savings & Clone. (wikipedia.org)
  • This transcontinental collaboration constructed a body of work that formed the foundation for a generation of scientific progress in genetic modification via transgenesis, homologous recombination or "knock-out" techniques, and cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that differentiated cell types had specific patterns of proteins suggested irreversible epigenetic modifications or genetic alterations to be the cause of unidirectional cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • Artificial pancreas: research involves using islet cells to produce and regulate insulin, particularly in cases of diabetes. (wikipedia.org)