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  • 1996
  • They reported their results in the article 'Sheep Cloned by Nuclear Transfer from a Cultured Cell Line' in March 1996. (asu.edu)
  • The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) issued a joint Safety Report on genetically engineered foods, as the result of an expert consultation held in Rome in October, 1996. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • genes
  • Two separate research teams have figured out how to "reprogram" cells with just a handful of genes to give them the characteristics of embryonic stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • Techniques for adding new genes to an animal's chromosomes have a success rate of one cell in a thousand. (dhushara.com)
  • and (3) isolating the cells, growing them in cell culture, and manipulating them, often by adding growth factors or introducing new genes, to determine what differentiated cells types they can become. (biology-online.org)
  • They see the technique as helping science find better ways of splicing altered genes into cells to produce a desired result in plants and animals. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Cloning makes it possible to insert human genes into animal embryonic cells. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Creating animals and plants that have human genes may seem eerie, but it is along the lines of what nature has done to build complex living things from the first single-celled life forms. (chicagotribune.com)
  • A potential use of stem cells genetically matched to a patient would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to a patient's particular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The iPSC technology was pioneered by Shinya Yamanaka's lab in Kyoto, Japan, who showed in 2006 that the introduction of four specific genes encoding transcription factors could convert adult cells into pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • iPSCs are typically derived by introducing products of specific sets of pluripotency-associated genes, or "reprogramming factors", into a given cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon introduction of reprogramming factors, cells begin to form colonies that resemble pluripotent stem cells, which can be isolated based on their morphology, conditions that select for their growth, or through expression of surface markers or reporter genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They hypothesized that genes important to embryonic stem cell (ESC) function might be able to induce an embryonic state in adult cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetically modified mice are commonly used for research or as animal models of human diseases, and are also used for research on genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic mice generated to carry cloned oncogenes and knockout mice lacking tumor suppressing genes have provided good models for human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Chlamydomonas zygote that contains chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from both parents, such cells generally are rare since normally cpDNA is inherited uniparental from the mt+ mating type parent.These rare biparental zygotes allowed mapping of chloroplast genes by recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • All the above techniques were systematically tested in various combinations on 1000 monkey eggs before ensuring the same in human cells to ensure high success rates. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Human eggs, as it turns out, are considerably more fragile than eggs of other mammalian species, and they do not survive the procedures that were successfully used to clone animals. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • He used 242 eggs to create that single line. (nytimes.com)
  • these stem cells are found in fertilised eggs that are only a few days old. (eu.com)
  • Hwang explained that his team used 242 eggs to create a single cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • successfully cloned
  • A Javan banteng calf was successfully cloned from frozen cells using a cow as a surrogate, delivered via c-section April 1, 2003 then hand raised at the San Diego Wild Animal Parks Infant Isolation Unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Gene, the first cloned calf in the world was born in 1997 at the American Breeders Service facilities in Deforest, Wisconsin, United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fibroblasts were engineered so that any cells reactivating the ESC-specific gene, Fbx15, could be isolated using antibiotic selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is known throughout the scientific community for his revolutionary research in embryonic-cell differentiation, developmental mechanisms of gene control, and stem cell physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second approach, pioneered by Oliver Smithies and Mario Capecchi, involves modifying embryonic stem cells with a DNA construct containing DNA sequences homologous to the target gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genomic DNA for ERCC1 was the first human DNA repair gene to be isolated by molecular cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple independent complementation groups of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were isolated, and this gene restored UV resistance to cells of complementation group 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • An established or immortalized cell line has acquired the ability to proliferate indefinitely either through random mutation or deliberate modification, such as artificial expression of the telomerase gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogenes
  • The AKR murine leukemia viruses do not contain acute transforming oncogenes ( 4 ) and are thought to transform cells as a result of activating cellular proto-oncogenes in the vicinity of viral integration into chromosomal DNA ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Genetically modified mice were created in 1984 that carried cloned oncogenes, predisposing them to developing cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • world's
  • The most prominent of these was his announcement in August that he had created Snuppy, the world's first cloned dog. (nytimes.com)
  • On November 2015, a Chinese biotech company Boyalife Group announced that it will partner with Hwang's laboratory, Sooam Biotech, to open the world's largest animal cloning factory in Tianjin as early as 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian Cells
  • citation needed] Before this, laboratory cultures of healthy, noncancerous mammalian cells would only divide a fixed number of times, up to the Hayflick limit, before dying. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells are grown and maintained at an appropriate temperature and gas mixture (typically, 37 °C, 5% CO2 for mammalian cells) in a cell incubator. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • Richard Seed, a Chicago-based physicist, brought the world to his door last week when he announced that he plans to open a clinic to produce cloned human babies for desperate couples. (dhushara.com)
  • Too many bits of the technology needed to produce a human clone are already being developed for other, widely accepted medical treatments or for research purposes. (dhushara.com)
  • The new process could also speed the development of genetically engineered cows-for example, those that produce pharmaceuticals in their milk. (dhushara.com)
  • Although known for a long time to be able to produce neurons, these cells are now believed to be a type of stem cell or a neuroprogenitor cell. (rutgers.edu)
  • He later showed that dynamic disassembly of the spindle fibers can produce force that moves the chromosomes toward the poles of the cell during mitosis or meiosis. (blogspot.com)
  • Last month, James Robl of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and Steven Stice of Advanced Cell Technology Inc., a Worcester, Mass.-based biotechnology company, announced that by using this approach to cloning they were able to produce Charlie and George, the first cloned cattle with genetically engineered traits. (chicagotribune.com)
  • In 2015 the Chinese company BoyaLife announced that in partnership with the Korean company Sooam Biotech, they were planning to build a factory in Tianjin, China to produce 100,000 cloned cattle per year, starting in 2016 to supply China's growing market for quality beef. (wikipedia.org)
  • While they normally produce digestive fluids for the stomach, they can revert into stem cells to make temporary repairs to stomach injuries, such as a cut or damage from infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows embryonic stem cells to be employed as useful tools for both research and regenerative medicine, because they can produce limitless numbers of themselves for continued research or clinical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, many species can be considered immortal: for example, bacteria fission to produce daughter cells, strawberry plants grow runners to produce clones of themselves, and animals in the genus Hydra have a regenerative ability by which they avoid dying of old age. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two basic technical approaches to produce genetically modified mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • After approximately 30 hours from the time of fertilization, fusion of the pronuclei and immediate mitotic division produce two 2n diploid daughter cells called blastomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • GMOs are used to produce many medications and genetically modified foods and are widely used in scientific research and the production of other goods. (wikipedia.org)
  • primates
  • Their report, published in the same issue of the journal, confirms that therapeutic cloning has now been accomplished in primates for the first time. (nih.gov)
  • Although this study proves that the therapeutic cloning of primates is possible, there are still many hurdles to be overcome. (nih.gov)
  • I understand there's already a bit of a race among cutting-edge IVF clinics to get into this technology,' says Don Wolf of the Oregon Regional Primate Center in Beaverton, who works on the cloning of primates. (dhushara.com)
  • generate
  • A variety of nontumorigenic stem cells display the ability to generate multiple cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • These unlimited supplies of autologous cells could be used to generate transplants without the risk of immune rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate to generate primitive ectoderm, which ultimately differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Techniques to transfer a nucleus from one cell to another are being perfected using monkeys because it may be easier to study deadly diseases such as AIDS using standardised animals (see p 4). (dhushara.com)
  • Adult stem cells are very important to design a new diagnosis and develop a new therapy to some degenerative diseases. (biology-online.org)
  • The New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF) is an American 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, founded in the Spring of 2005, with the mission "accelerating cures for the major diseases of our time through stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human zygote has been genetically edited in experiments designed to cure inherited diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • We have only known since the mid-1990's that there are neural stem cells in adult brain that continue to make neurons throughout adult life. (rutgers.edu)
  • For example, they have turned stem cells into neurons, which they hope can treat people with brain disorders or spinal-cord injuries. (wired.com)
  • Parkinson's occurs as a result of the gradual loss of dopamine-producing cells (neurons) in the brain. (eu.com)
  • Because they can propagate indefinitely, as well as give rise to every other cell type in the body (such as neurons, heart, pancreatic, and liver cells), they represent a single source of cells that could be used to replace those lost to damage or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • derivation
  • In order to ensure that federal funds are used to support only stem cell research that is scientifically sound, legal, and ethical, the NIH will examine the derivation of all existing stem cell lines and create a registry of those lines that satisfy this criteria. (archives.gov)
  • However, the derivation of such cell types from ESs is not without obstacles and hence current research is focused on overcoming these barriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • With this knowledge it may be possible to replace the damaged cells in the brain by introducing healthy dopamine-producing cells generated from stem cells grown in the laboratory. (eu.com)
  • Normal human cells however die after about 50 cell divisions in laboratory culture (the Hayflick Limit, discovered by Leonard Hayflick in 1961). (wikipedia.org)
  • The foundation focuses on three areas: NYSCF Research and Laboratory - Supports non-government funded advanced stem cell research, in the NYSCF Research Institute laboratory and through collaborations with medical research institutions worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006, NYSCF established its own laboratory, which is now one of the largest private stem cell laboratories in the United States, now referred to as The NYSCF Research Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • NYSCF has raised nearly $100 million for stem cell research both in its own laboratory and in the major medical institutions around the world that it continues to support. (wikipedia.org)
  • In March 2006, NYSCF opened the first privately funded human embryonic stem cell (hESC) laboratory in New York. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • Gurdon began cloning experiments using nonembryonic cells-specifically, cells from the intestinal lining of tadpoles. (blogspot.com)
  • He was a professor of theriogenology and biotechnology at Seoul National University (dismissed on March 20, 2006) who became infamous for fabricating a series of experiments, which appeared in high-profile journals, in the field of stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly after that his human cloning experiments were revealed to be fraudulent. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • This experiment led the Roslin team to later clone mammals from adult body cells and to genetically engineer mammals. (asu.edu)
  • with Mario Capecchi and Oliver Smithies 2003 Selected for the Hall of Honor National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (15 members, total) 2006 Gairdner Foundation International Award, Canada "for pioneering discoveries in germ line modification in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also have advantages over other mammals, in regards to research, in that they are available in hundreds of genetically homogeneous strains. (wikipedia.org)