Loading...
  • tissue
  • Isolated cells from lung tissue harvested from transplant recipients after 2 months were analyzed for SPC (yellow) and cytokeratin (orange). (nih.gov)
  • Although cell transplantation has modestly improved cardiac function, major challenges including increasing cell survival, engraftment, and functional integration with host tissue, remain. (pnas.org)
  • We used a cardiac tissue model, engineered heart tissue (EHT), and quantitative molecular and electrophysiological analyses, to test transplantation conditions and specific cell populations for their potential to functionally integrate with the host tissue. (pnas.org)
  • Recent advances in stem cell biology have raised considerable hopes for the development of therapeutic approaches for replacing cardiac tissue through cell transplantation ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • It is with this limitation in mind that we, herein, explore the utility of an engineered heart tissue (EHT) as a predictive test-bed for functional cell integration. (pnas.org)
  • 2 ) Considering the several disadvantages of heart transplantation, which is still the best option for patients with end-stage heart failure, ( 3 ) and the restricted regenerative abilities of cardiomyocytes to heal the heart after an acute acute myocardial infarction, ( 4 ) many studies in regenerative medicine have been performed creating alternatives for myocardial regeneration through tissue engineering. (scielo.br)
  • The broad interest of the WAGERS LAB is to identify and analyze tissue-specific stem cell populations in adult animals. (harvard.edu)
  • Adult stem cells are maintained throughout the body, they are currently used in many clinical applications, and if a patient uses his own adult stem cells, an immune response causing tissue rejection is avoided. (icr.org)
  • These niches have been identified in many locations including the kidneys, 1 hair follicles, 2 nervous tissue, 3 and bone marrow. (icr.org)
  • 7 Using stem cells from another niche in the body will make it possible to treat an individual who is suffering from organ failure with their own stem cells, eliminating an immune response that frequently leads to tissue rejection of a transplanted organ. (icr.org)
  • 8 Clinical trials with neural stem cells to treat a neurodegenerative disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 9 and bone marrow stem cells to replace damaged heart tissue from the effects of myocardial ischaemia (decreased blood flow to the heart associated with heart attack) 10 have also demonstrated the potential of adult stem cell treatments. (icr.org)
  • The resident population of endothelial cells that is competent to respond to an available level of angiogenic growth factors, however, may potentially limit the extent to which cytokine supplementation enhances tissue neovascularization. (pnas.org)
  • The CD34 protein is a member of a family of single-pass transmembrane sialomucin proteins that show expression on early hematopoietic and vascular-associated tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hematopoietic tissue contains cells with long-term and short-term regeneration capacities and committed multipotent, oligopotent, and unipotent progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipose tissue (lipid cells), which requires extraction by liposuction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, stem cells are identified by whether they can regenerate tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells then integrate into the site of injury, replacing damaged tissue, and thus facilitate improved function of the organ or tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since they are derived from the mesoderm, they have been shown to differentiate into bone, cartilage, muscle, and adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, many researchers have focused on adult stem cells , or stem cells isolated from adult humans that can be transplanted into damaged tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once these MSCs are ready for re-implanation, they are usually transferred with growth factors to allow for continued cell growth and engraftment to the damaged tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • At some point, a signal is introduced (either in culture or after transplant to the damaged tissue) for the cells to differentiate into the end tissue (in this discussion, cartilage). (wikipedia.org)
  • The phenomena of mechanically dissociated cells aggregating and reorganizing to reform the tissue they were obtained from subsequently led to the development of the differential adhesion hypothesis by Malcolm Steinberg. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the advent of the field of stem cell biology, the potential of stem cells to form organs in vitro was realized early on with the observation that when stem cells form teratomas or embryoid body, the differentiated cells can organize into different structures resembling those found in multiple tissue types. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Possible mechanisms of recovery include: Generation of heart muscle cells Stimulation of growth of new blood vessels to repopulate damaged heart tissue Secretion of growth factors Assistance via some other mechanism It may be possible to have adult bone-marrow cells differentiate into heart muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A Nature Insight review defines niche as follows: "Stem-cell populations are established in 'niches' - specific anatomic locations that regulate how they participate in tissue generation, maintenance and repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • It constitutes a basic unit of tissue physiology, integrating signals that mediate the balanced response of stem cells to the needs of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • ECFCs are now known to be tissue-resident progenitor cells in adults that maintain some vasculogenic ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The team shows that many of the factors which bind to the same gene regions ('hotspots') and their work provide a working model of the transcriptional networks at play within the cells, and how these intracellular networks are linked to events that can be influenced by external stimuli. (medindia.net)
  • According to the research team, the combinational wiring of transcription factors may be helpful in deciphering the code behind gene expression program in ES cells. (medindia.net)
  • We also identified two genes that increase in both gene and protein expression during activation, and potentially represent new markers for proliferating stem cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34 also known as CD34 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD34 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene encoding stem cell factor (SCF) is found on the Sl locus in mice and on chromosome 12q22-12q24 in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCR/ABL induce cell adhesive and migratory abnormalities because the mutation will lead an abnormal response to chemokine SDF-1 MLL gene encode Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase (HRX), which is a histone methyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (SCFR), also known as proto-oncogene c-Kit or tyrosine-protein kinase Kit or CD117, is a receptor tyrosine kinase protein that in humans is encoded by the KIT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activating mutations in this gene are associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, testicular seminoma, mast cell disease, melanoma, acute myeloid leukemia, while inactivating mutations are associated with the genetic defect piebaldism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mertelsmann is known for his scientific works in the fields of hematology, oncology, gene therapy and stem cell transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • We hypothesized that analysis of the changes in the molecular and electrophysiological properties of EHT upon test cell injection could provide insight into the potential (or limitations) of different test cell populations and conditions for cardiac cell therapy. (pnas.org)
  • This work focuses on understanding the factors controlling the migration and expansion of bone marrow-derived and blood-forming (hematopoietic) stem cells in mice, as well as developing methods for the isolation and manipulation of distinct stem and progenitor cell populations from adult mouse skeletal muscle. (harvard.edu)
  • In healthy adult laboratory animals, progenitor cells migrate within the brain and function primarily to maintain neuron populations for olfaction (the sense of smell). (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular genetic analysis of early outgrowth putative EPC populations suggests they do indeed have monocyte-like expression patterns, and support the existence of a separate population of progenitors, the late outgrowth, or endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC). (wikipedia.org)
  • By method of isolation and cell function, three main populations of putative adult EPCs have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • regenerative
  • This can potentially create an inexhaustible source of clinically useful cells for regenerative medicine or cell based therapies in the future. (medindia.net)
  • These precursors include cells with robust muscle-forming activity, which when transplanted into animals with injured or defective skeletal musculature, are able to reconstitute both muscle fibers and regenerative satellite cells, improving muscle function and providing enduring muscle regenerative function. (harvard.edu)
  • Finally, we suggest that disruption of stem cell regulatory programs is likely to play an important role in many other pathologies including ageing-associated regenerative failure. (springer.com)
  • Marrow nucleated cells are used every day in regenerative orthopedics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several different forms of stem cells have been identified and studied in the field of regenerative medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, an ideal treatment must possess both immunomodulating properties to control irregular autoimmune responses to prevent further damage and regenerative properties to stimulate natural repair mechanisms and replace damaged cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotherapy
  • Crucial role of FLT3 ligand in immune reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation and high-dose chemotherapy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thiotepa is also used with high-dose chemotherapy with HPCT support to treat certain solid tumors in adult and pediatric patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • During chemotherapy, most growing cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Midostaurin was approved by the FDA in April 2017 for the treatment of adult patients with newly diagnosed AML who are positive for oncogenic FLT3, in combination with chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • There he contributed to the isolation of the blood stimulating growth factor G-CSF, which leads to a faster recovery of white blood cells after chemotherapy and radiation therapy protecting patients better against severe infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Bone marrow and HSC from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice were transplanted into irradiated wild‐type mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • At 1 month after transplantation, mice were sacrificed and their sclera examined by histology, immunohistochemistry (CD11b, CD11c, CD45), and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To investigate bone marrow derived cell recruitment under inflammatory conditions, experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) was induced in transplanted mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In EAU mice, vast infiltration of GFP (+) cells developed into the sclera. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • B and D: Lung cells from SPC-KO mice transplanted with non-VSELs or HSPC express cytokeratin but not SPC. (nih.gov)
  • Using cardiac promoter specific selection strategies and bioreactor technologies, large numbers of ESC-derived CMs (ESC-CMs) can be produced ( 6 , 7 ) and appear capable of forming grafts in the adult mice heart ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 11854293 Studies of chimeric mice have disclosed that the stem cell hierarchy in the small intestinal epithelium is established during formation of its proliferative units (crypts of Lieberkühn). (jove.com)
  • Accordingly, we transplanted human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) to athymic nude mice with hindlimb ischemia. (pnas.org)
  • Mice with SCF or c-Kit mutations have severe defects in the production of mast cells, having less than 1% of the normal levels of mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regeneration
  • The heart has limited capacity of regeneration, therefore, transplantation is the only solution in some cases despite presenting many disadvantages. (scielo.br)
  • One example is the transformation of iris cells to lens cells in the process of maturation and transformation of retinal pigment epithelium cells into the neural retina during regeneration in adult newt eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the number of MSC's that can be isolated from bone marrow is fairly limited, most research in cartilage regeneration has focused on the use of culture expanded cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endothelial progenitor cell (or EPC) is a term that has been applied to multiple different cell types that play roles in the regeneration of the endothelial lining of blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD34
  • CD34 is also an important adhesion molecule and is required for T cells to enter lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, under other circumstances CD34 has been shown to act as molecular "Teflon" and block mast cell, eosinophil and dendritic cell precursor adhesion, and to facilitate opening of vascular lumina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of its mode of action, under all circumstances CD34, and its relatives podocalyxin and endoglycan, facilitates cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] CD34 is expressed in roughly 20% of murine hematopoietic stem cells, and can be stimulated and reversed. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • With a constellation of stem cell sources available, researchers hope to utilize their potential for cellular repair as a therapeutic target for disease. (mdpi.com)
  • The immunological barriers, such as graft vs . host or required immunosuppression of the host, are of constant consideration in the therapeutic benefits and limitations of stem cell transplantation. (mdpi.com)
  • Nevertheless, these cells are being investigated as the basis for a number of therapeutic applications, including possible treatments for diabetes and Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes cells that naturally secrete the relevant therapeutic factors, or which undergo epigenetic changes or genetic engineering that causes the cells to release large quantities of a specific molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • To help discover the therapeutic uses of these stem cells they are grown in laboratories or by using medication to stimulate new cell growth within the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact therapeutic mechanisms of MSCs in the treatment of MS are still very much up to debate among stem cell researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • These concerns may serve as potential limitations respective to the donor cell origin being considered, proving a particular source to be a more suitable therapy for a specific disease. (mdpi.com)
  • Multipotent adult stem cells can be found in many regions of the body called stem cell niches and collecting cells from these niches neither creates a viable embryo nor harms the donor. (icr.org)
  • Blood, which requires extraction through apheresis, wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation), and passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In allogeneic cell therapy the donor is a different person to the recipient of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • MSCs are purified from the marrow, cultured and packaged, with up to 10,000 doses derived from a single donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • Sorting strategy for isolation of VSELs and non-hematopoietic non-VSEL-cells, experimental approach and expression of Oct4 and Nanog in VSELs isolated from BM. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, the large experimental matrix generated by testing different cell types cultured with different survival and integration molecules, creates a barrier to the rapid development of candidate therapies. (pnas.org)
  • The experimental field of Stem cell therapy has shown promise for new types of treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • pluripotent cells
  • Importantly, although multiple CMs and CPs can be generated from pluripotent cells, it is not clear which specific cell types will be the most effective in treating cardiac disease, or what additional factor(s) may be important for functional cell integration. (pnas.org)
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • repopulation
  • This view was first challenged by the 2002 discovery by the Muller-Sieburg group in San Diego, who illustrated that different stem cells can show distinct repopulation patterns that are epigenetically predetermined intrinsic properties of clonal Thy-1lo Sca-1+ lin− c-kit+ HSC. (wikipedia.org)
  • HSPC
  • B-D: VSELs were sorted from this gate (R1) as lineage-negative and Sca-1 positive cells (R2), that are also CD45-negative (R3), while HSPC are CD45-positive (R4). (nih.gov)
  • generate
  • Scientific interest in adult stem cells is centered on their ability to divide or self-renew indefinitely, and generate all the cell types of the organ from which they originate, potentially regenerating the entire organ from a few cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multipotency or multidifferentiative potential, which is the ability to generate progeny of several distinct cell types, (for example glial cells and neurons) as opposed to unipotency, which is the term for cells that are restricted to producing a single-cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of nontumorigenic stem cells display the ability to generate multiple cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1987, researchers have devised different methods for 3-D culturing, and were able to utilize different types of stem cells to generate organoids resembling a multitude of organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukemia
  • Ash1l cooperated functionally with mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (Mll1), as combined loss of Ash1l and Mll1, but not isolated Ash1l or Mll1 deficiency, induced overt hematopoietic failure. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Animation and slides providing graphic explanation of Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT)/Stem Cell Transplantation that is done for leukemia and other blood-related disorders. (medindia.net)
  • Adult stem cells from bone marrow are used to treat more than 70 diseases including leukemia and breast cancer. (icr.org)
  • Among those affected, the majority develops cancer, most often acute myelogenous leukemia, and 90% develop bone marrow failure (the inability to produce blood cells) by age 40. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] As FA is now known to affect DNA repair, specifically nonhomologous end joining, and given the current knowledge about dynamic cell division in the bone marrow, finding patients are more likely to develop bone marrow failure, myelodysplastic syndromes, and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is not surprising. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent fever, infection prolonged healing: Most of the white blood cells are leukemia cells, no normal function, leading to decreased immunity, susceptible to infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations of the FLT3 receptor can lead to the development of leukemia, a cancer of bone marrow hematopoietic progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • By using all techniques available at the time for phenotypic characterization of leukemia cells, he was successful in discovering and describing novel subentities of acute leukemias. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Today two distinct categories of cell therapy are recognized. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mainstream medicine, cell therapy is supported by a distinct healthcare industry which sees strong prospects for future growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular in intestinal crypt, two distinct groups of SCs have been identified: the "border stem cells" located in the upper part of the niche at the interface with transit amplifying cells (TAs), and "central stem cells" located at the crypt base. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endothelial colony forming cells represent a distinct population that has been found to have the potential to differentiate and promote vessel repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • endoderm
  • Additionally, it now appears possible to identify and isolate specific ESC-derived cardiac progenitors (ESC-CPs) ( 9 - 11 ), opening the possibility of using progenitor cells for cardiac cell therapy, as has been explored using pancreatic endoderm progenitors for the generation of insulin responsive islet-like cells ( 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Myeloid Cells
  • While some other authors have contested these, and maintained that they are true EPCs, many investigators have begun to term these cells colony forming unit-Hill cells (CFU-Hill) or circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) instead (depending on the method of isolation), highlighting their role as hematopoietic myeloid cells involved in promoting new vessel growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • See " A Molecular Model of Blood Cell Renewal " , e349. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • There is renewed hope that new single cell profiling technologies will provide a step-change in our understanding of molecular processes controlling HSC function. (springer.com)
  • It is believed that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors) between the daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular mechanisms of B-cell neoplasias were investigated together with Binder, Trepel and Dierks, the pathogenic significance of granulocytes in Graft-versus-host disease with Zeiser and his colleagues. (wikipedia.org)