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  • especially
  • Steroid precursors up to and including progesterone, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone, and especially 17α-hydroxyprogesterone accumulate in the adrenal cortex and in circulating blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • The five forms of CAH are summarized in Table I . Impaired enzyme function at each step of adrenal cortisol biosynthesis leads to a unique combination of retained precursors and deficient products. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • This step is performed by the mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17A1) that is present in the adrenal and gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is cholesterol,reduced-adrenal-ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (side-chain-cleaving). (wikipedia.org)
  • aldosterone
  • Features Hypertension Hypokalemia (e.g., may cause muscle weakness) Alkalosis Investigations High serum aldosterone Low serum renin High-resolution CT abdomen Management Adrenal adenoma: surgery Bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia: aldosterone antagonist, e.g., spironolactone Secondary hyperaldosteronism (also hyperreninism, or hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism) is due to overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). (wikipedia.org)
  • steroids
  • At the expected time of puberty neither the adrenals nor the ovaries can produce sex steroids, so neither breast development nor pubic hair appear. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3β-HSD II mediates three parallel dehydrogenase/isomerase reactions in the adrenals that convert Δ4 to Δ5 steroids: pregnenolone to progesterone, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone to 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and DHEA to androstenedione. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clitoromegaly (or macroclitoris) is an abnormal enlargement of the clitoris that is mostly congenital or acquired, though deliberately induced clitoris enlargement as a form of female genital body modification is achieved through various uses of anabolic steroids, including testosterone, and may also be referred to as clitoromegaly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particular interests were calcium metabolism, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, blood volume and electrolyte physiology, and the actions of sex steroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • newborn
  • Affected males who are not detected by a newborn screening program are at high risk for a salt-wasting adrenal crisis because their normal male genitalia do not alert medical professionals to their condition. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • On June 1, 1989, the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) began testing all newborn screening specimens for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH). (texas.gov)
  • tumors
  • Recent studies suggested that development of testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs), which cause an obstruction of the seminiferous tubules, may play a major role [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • From 2000-2002 he was scientific coordinator of a NIH-state-of-the-science-conference on adrenal tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • virilization
  • All of the issues related to virilization, neonatal assignment, advantages and disadvantages of genital surgery, childhood and adult virilization, gender identity and sexual orientation are similar to those of 21-hydroxylase CAH and elaborated in more detail in Congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Milder forms resulting from incomplete loss of 3β-HSD type II function do not present with adrenal crisis, but can still produce virilization of genetically female infants and undervirilization of genetically male infants. (wikipedia.org)
  • It primarily relates to virilization of the female genitalia in cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and identifies five distinct stages, but in recent times has been used to describe the range of differentiation of genitalia, with normal infant presentation being shown on either end of the scale, female on the left (0) and male on the right (6). (wikipedia.org)
  • disorders
  • 1 in 5,000 Critical congenital heart defects (Screened using pulse oximetry) The following disorders are additional conditions that may be detected by screening. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Primary aldosteronism (hyporeninemic hyperaldosteronism) was previously thought to be most commonly caused by an adrenal adenoma, termed Conn's syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • DHEA and other adrenal androgens such as androstenedione, although relatively weak androgens, are responsible for the androgenic effects of adrenarche, such as early pubic and axillary hair growth, adult-type body odor, increased oiliness of hair and skin, and mild acne. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • The blood pressure raising and vasoconstrictive effects of adrenal extracts were of particular interest to surgeons as hemostatic agents and as treatment for shock, and a number of companies developed products based on adrenal extracts containing varying purities of the active substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Function
  • Infertility and Reproductive Function in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Pathophysiology, Advances in Management, and Recent Outcomes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 7.5 mm for the left adrenal is considered to provide the best sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic test for pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, but this does not necessarily relate to function. (vin.com)
  • Chrousos has focused his research on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and has extensively studied the neuroendocrine alterations associated with mood disorders, sleep, pain perception, and immune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • By the 1890s, the profound effect of adrenal extracts on many different tissue types had been discovered, setting off a search both for the mechanism of chemical signalling and efforts to exploit these observations for the development of new drugs. (wikipedia.org)