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  • glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate d
  • Adipogenic stimulation, which was accompanied by the absence of proliferation, reduced the glycolytic capacity (e.g. decreased glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase capacity) and induced an increase in mitochondrial enzyme capacities. (ovid.com)
  • metabolism
  • A figurative narration describing some of the elementary biochemistry of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) of glucose metabolism (Figs. 1 and 2) (1) has appeared, with ever diminishing scope of treatment, in all textbooks on general biochemistry since 1954. (schoolbag.info)
  • Although incompletely understood, these mechanisms involve the combination of changes in insulin signaling transduction pathways in the heart acting in concert with changes in mitochondrial function and metabolism glucose and free fatty acids (FFAs). (ahajournals.org)
  • Understanding the molecular interplay between CAV1 and metabolism could help uncover druggable metabolic targets or pathways of clinical relevance in cancer therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review will discuss different potential cell metabolism pathways involved in shaping T lymphocyte function and differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • While metabolite fluctuation caused by host immune cells is at present an active area of study, the pathways involved in T-cell activation and differentiation, in class switching effector T cells into memory T cells and how metabolism regulates immune function and plasticity remains unclear and very challenging. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although taste bud cells on the tongue sense glucose through a cell surface receptor, glucose sensing by islet, liver, adipose, and muscle cells almost certainly involves metabolism of the sugar. (physiology.org)
  • tissues
  • show that ablation of endothelial VEGFR1 induces adipose tissues browning in healthy and obese mice, which has profound effects on improving global metabolic dysfunctions. (rupress.org)
  • Because detailed information about the mechanisms of component enzymatic steps in any metabolic pathway cannot be obtained from studies with whole organisms or tissues, various techniques have been developed for studying these processes-e.g., sliced tissues, and homogenates and cell-free extracts, which are produced by physical disruption of the cells and the removal of cell walls and other debris. (britannica.com)
  • PPARg1 is mainly expressed in adipose tissues but is also present in the colon, spleen, retina, hematopoietic cells, and skeletal muscle. (kelmacmedical.us)
  • insulin
  • Recent advances in understanding the role of metabolic, signaling, and inflammatory pathways in obesity have provided opportunities to better understand the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in the heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • carbohydrate
  • Indeed, in the example, lactic acid is formed in response to abnormal circumstances and is not directly formed in the pathways of carbohydrate catabolism. (britannica.com)
  • Pentose sugar was found in 1893 by Albrecht Kossel who was the first person to recognise that nucleic acids (called nuclein at the time) contained a carbohydrate . (factbites.com)
  • nonoxidative
  • The history of the unravelling of many of the above events reveals instances of profound weakness in evidence used to justify the nonoxidative pathway description. (schoolbag.info)
  • obesity
  • Obesity affects the functional capability of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and their effective use in regenerative medicine through mechanisms that are still poorly understood. (biochemj.org)
  • These discoveries establish an important role for the adipose vasculature in controlling the metabolic functions of adipocytes and provide new therapeutic options for treatment of obesity and diabetes. (rupress.org)
  • biosynthetic
  • and (c) a storage pool of diverse phosphorylated glycolyl units that may be used directly or as signals for biosynthetic and energy-yielding reactions by other pathways. (schoolbag.info)
  • Initially proposed as a receptor of farnesol metabolites, FXR was shown to bind and be activated by physiological concentrations of free and conjugated bile acids that are the end-products of the neutral and acidic bile acid biosynthetic pathway: chenodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, and deoxy-cholic acid (Makishima et al. (kelmacmedical.us)
  • catalyzes
  • Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase catalyzes an _________ oxidation of _______ to 6 phosphogluconolactone in a reaction that is specific for ________ as its coenzyme. (studyhippo.com)
  • A second enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, catalyzes the decarboxylation and phosphorylation of oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate using GTP (or ITP) as the phosphate donor. (guwsmedical.info)
  • lactate
  • A key element in this process is a metabolic pathway called the lactate shuttle - initially posited by Dr. Brooks - which describes the movement of lactate within and between cells so it can be used. (foundmyfitness.com)
  • The Cori cycle (also known as the Lactic acid cycle), named after its discoverers, Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Cori, refers to the metabolic pathway in which lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves to the liver and is converted to glucose, which then returns to the muscles and is metabolized back to lactate. (wikipathways.org)
  • occurs
  • Xylose is a sugar of the pentose class that occurs widely in plants, especially as a component of hemicelluloses. (factbites.com)
  • gene
  • The common gene signature and the associated signaling pathways of MetS, diabetes, and dementia have not been widely studied. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Cloning, characterization and computational analysis of the 5' regulatory region of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. (diff.org)