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  • Humans
  • Cell biology research extends to both the great diversities of single-celled organisms like bacteria and the complex specialized cells in multicellular organisms like humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • The import of proteins into the nucleus is a process that involves at least 2 steps. (cancerindex.org)
  • KPNA2 protein interacts with the NLSs of DNA helicase Q1 and SV40 T antigen and may be involved in the nuclear transport of proteins. (cancerindex.org)
  • Whether the unexpected role of nuclear pore proteins in transcription regulation, which initially has been described in fungi and flies, also applies to human cells is unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, we detected interactions between specific HCV proteins and both Nups and NTFs.We hypothesize that cytoplasmically positioned Nups facilitate formation of the membranous web and contribute to the compartmentalization of viral replication.Accordingly, we show that transport cargo proteins normally targeted to the nucleus are capable of entering regions of the membranous web, and that depletion of specific Nups or Kaps inhibits HCV replication and assembly. (nih.gov)
  • We have uncovered a role for nuclear pore complex proteins (Nups) and nuclear transport factors (NTFs) in the membranous web. (nih.gov)
  • Accordingly, we show that transport cargo proteins normally targeted to the nucleus are capable of entering regions of the membranous web, and that depletion of specific Nups or Kaps inhibits HCV replication and assembly. (nih.gov)
  • B) Cell lysates were harvested from HCV infected Huh7.5 cells four days after infection and Nup proteins levels were determined by western blotting using antibodies specific for Nup98, Nup153, Nup155, and Nup358. (nih.gov)
  • In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME), also called clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is a process by which cells absorb metabolites, hormones, other proteins - and in some cases viruses - by the inward budding of plasma membrane vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being absorbed (endocytosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1991). "Comparison of multiple forms of the high mobility group I proteins in rodent and human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • KPNA3, encodes a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. (wikipedia.org)
  • The similarities among these proteins suggests that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone is a dynamic tissue that is constantly being reshaped by osteoblasts, which produce and secrete matrix proteins and transport mineral into the matrix, and osteoclasts, which break down the tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apical membranes of the dark cells also have a k+ channel which is formed of two subunits, the KCNE1 regulatory protein and the KCNQ1 channel proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins that constitute the NPCs, known as nucleoporins, have been shown to play a role in DNA binding and mRNA transport, making gene gating possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • GTPases are active when bound to GTP and inactive when bound to GDP, allowing their activity to be regulated by GEFs and the opposing GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the Ran GEF, RCC1, is present in the nucleus while the Ran GAP is present in the cytosol, modulating nuclear import and export of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • RCC1 converts RanGDP to RanGTP in the nucleus, activating Ran for the export of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the mammalian Dbl family proteins are tissue-specific and their number in Metazoa varies in proportion of cell signaling complexity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activated GR complex up-regulates the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins in the nucleus or represses the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins in the cytosol (by preventing the translocation of other transcription factors from the cytosol into the nucleus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar filament-forming myosin proteins were found in cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromatin
  • Cycling eukaryotic cells rapidly re-establish the nuclear envelope and internal architecture following mitosis.Here we present evidence showing that the anionic glycerophospholipid phosphatidylserine is specifically located in epichromatin throughout the cell cycle and is associated with nucleosome core histones.This suggests that chromatin bound phosphatidylserine may function as a nucleation site for the binding of ER and re-establishment of the nuclear envelope. (nih.gov)
  • In order to examine the distribution of chromatin-associated phosphatidylserine during the division cycle, we performed an immunostaining comparison of anti-PS antibody (1H6) with anti-epichromatin antibody (PL2-6) on rapidly growing tissue culture cells (i.e., human U2OS and mouse NIH 3T3). (nih.gov)
  • After in vivo permeabilization as in A, cells were fixed and chromatin was counter-stained with DAPI. (nih.gov)
  • RNAi knockdown of Nup210 prevents myogenesis in mouse stem cells, but has no effect on nuclear transport, though it has been speculated that Nup210 or other NPC-associated factors could influence chromatin architecture to mediate routes for mRNP/mRNA to the nuclear membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Anticancer drug therapy activates both molecular cell death and autophagy pathways. (nih.gov)
  • We used fluorescence photobleaching and biochemical techniques to investigate the molecular dynamics of CAD.The CAD-GFP fusion protein complexed with its inhibitor (ICAD) was as mobile as nuclear GFP in the nucleosol of dividing cells.Preventing the nuclear attachment of CAD provoked its extracellular release from apoptotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Our data demonstrate for the first time that TCHD makes the nucleus permeable for both high molecular weight dextrans and plasmid DNA (pDNA) at non-toxic concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • He is an expert in the molecular and biophysical mechanisms of cell motility and adhesion and nuclear dynamics in health and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescence
  • Here, we have used a combined approach of in vivo fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments, in vitro permeabilized cell nuclear export assays, and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays to investigate the export pathway used by TRalpha. (nih.gov)
  • Approximately 500 nuclei were scored for their fluorescence for each condition. (nih.gov)
  • HeLa
  • We developed cell line HeLa-55, a HeLa derivative that grossly overexpresses TS. (biomedsearch.com)
  • HeLa-55 cells exposed to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine were fractionated and examined by Western blotting. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A, nuclear export complex in cells expressing CRT (HeLa, crt+/+) in which CRT binding promotes a cooperative export pathway involving CRM1. (nih.gov)
  • B, inefficient nuclear export of TRα in cells expressing CRT (HeLa, crt+/+) occurs upon treatment with LMB. (nih.gov)
  • A) The stability of endogenous ICAD and CAD in HeLa cells during STS-induced apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • Soluble DNA fragments were absent in control HeLa cells (lane 2). (nih.gov)
  • C and D) HeLa cells were transiently transfected with the HA-CAD-GFP and ICAD-myc vectors or carrier DNA. (nih.gov)
  • C) Cell lysates from normal (lane 2) and STS treated HeLa cells (lane 3) were immunoprecipitated with an anti-GFP antibody. (nih.gov)
  • D) The expression and stability of ICAD-myc and CAD-GFP were determined as described in A. (E) Indirect immunofluorescence of HeLa cells expressing CAD-GFP/ICAD-myc fixed before (−perm) or after (+perm) permeabilization as in Fig. 1 A. (F) Number of cells retaining nuclear CAD-GFP and GFP-NLS under permeabilization. (nih.gov)
  • Transiently expressed HA-CAD-GFP/ICAD myc was immunoisolated from HeLa cell lysate with an anti-HA antibody on protein G-Sepharose. (nih.gov)
  • Cellular
  • In conjunction with p38 MAP kinase, this kinase is known to be involved in many cellular processes including stress and inflammatory responses, nuclear export, gene expression regulation and cell proliferation. (cancerindex.org)
  • To assess the potential contribution of increased Nup synthesis, we examined cellular levels of various Nup mRNA transcripts at time points after HCV infection of Huh7.5 cells (Figure 3A). (nih.gov)
  • Since transcription is essential for DNA synthesis and gene expression, phenanthriplatin inhibits both these processes in cancerous cells, ultimately inducing cellular apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular respiration - The metabolic reactions and processes that take place in a cell or across the cell membrane to convert biochemical energy from fuel molecules into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and then release the cell's waste products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular differentiation - A concept in developmental biology whereby less specialized cells become a more specialized cell type in multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a cell switches state from one cell type to another, it undergoes cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • Employing genome-wide ribosome profiling, we uncover widespread translational regulation of hundreds of mRNAs serving as an unexpected mechanism for gene regulation underlying cell-cycle progression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This includes the majority of mRNAs comprising the cohesin and condensin complexes responsible for maintaining genome organization, which are coordinately translated during specific cell cycle phases via their 5' UTRs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In Drosophila ovarian germ cells, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) direct Aubergine and Argonaute3 to cleave transposon transcripts and instruct Piwi to repress transposon transcription, thereby safeguarding the germline genome. (umassmed.edu)
  • WRN is important to genome stability, and cells with mutations to WRN are more susceptible to DNA damage and DNA breaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, the generated DNA is translocated into the nucleus of the host cell where it is integrated in its genome by the retroviral integrase. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic
  • Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy does not prevent ATG5-dependent mitotic catastrophe, but shifts the balance to an early caspase-dependent cell death. (nih.gov)
  • Although this experiment confirmed that autophagy is not necessarily linked to G2- and M-phase arrest and mitotic catastrophe, an ATG5-mediated, increased autophagic activity might still be causally related to cell cycle arrest and mitotic catastrophe. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphatidylserine colocalizes with epichromatin in interphase nuclei and mitotic chromosomes. (nih.gov)
  • Immunostaining of interphase and mitotic cells with anti-phosphatidylserine (1H6) compared with epichromatin (PL2-6). (nih.gov)
  • A more direct demonstration of colocalization of PS within the epichromatin region is presented in Figure 1G-I. Interphase and mitotic chromosomes of methanol-fixed NIH 3T3 cells were reacted first with PL2-6, washed with PBS and reacted with FITC-anti-mouse IgG. (nih.gov)
  • Cells defective in the WRN gene have a 23-fold reduction in spontaneous mitotic recombination, with especial deficiency in conversion-type events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiation
  • During osteoblast differentiation, the developing progenitor cells express the regulatory transcription factor Cbfa1/Runx2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most well-known GTPases comprise the Ras superfamily and are involved in essential cell processes such as cell differentiation and proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, vesicle trafficking, and nuclear transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRM1
  • D, crt-/- cells do not support nuclear export of TRα because CRT is not present to facilitate the CRM1-dependent component of the export pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, our data suggest a novel export mechanism in which CRT directly binds TRα, and CRT and CRM1 work cooperatively to promote rapid, efficient export of TRα from the nucleus (Fig. 9). (nih.gov)
  • Transcription
  • We developed and validated a computational model of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) pathway kinetics, a signaling network involved in embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal. (nih.gov)
  • In the NXF1-p15 pathway, TREX (transcription/export) complex plays an important role in coupling nuclear pre-mRNA processing with mRNA export in mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • receptors
  • Although receptors and their ligands can be brought into the cell through a few mechanisms (e.g. caveolin), clathrin-mediated endocytosis remains the best studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancerous cells
  • whereas in cancerous cells, it migrates into the nucleus and kills the cell. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Phenanthriplatin has been reported to have increased selectivity to cancerous cells compared to healthy cells, thereby reducing toxic side effects usually associated with current anticancer drugs and further supporting its potential use in chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • transiently transfected
  • We have used a combination of in vivo FRAP experiments, in vitro digitonin-permeabilized cell nuclear export assays of transiently transfected cells, and GST pull-down assays to investigate aspects of TRα subcellular trafficking. (nih.gov)
  • nucleocytoplasmic
  • Characterization of the transport signals that mediate the nucleocytoplasmic traffic of low risk HPV11 E7. (nextbio.com)
  • Unraveling the organization of the FG repeat meshwork that forms the active transport channel of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is key to understanding the mechanism of nucleocytoplasmic transport. (nih.gov)
  • In this paper, we develop a tool to probe the FG repeat network in living cells by modifying FG nucleoporins (Nups) with a binding motif (engineered dynein light chain-interacting domain) that can drag several copies of an interfering protein, Dyn2, into the FG network to plug the pore and stop nucleocytoplasmic transport. (nih.gov)
  • The data so far did not allow discrimination between whether the FG repeat domain modified with Dyn2 blocks nucleocytoplasmic transport because of the type of FG repeats or the topological location within the NPC scaffold. (nih.gov)
  • Anticancer
  • Once it has entered the cell, phenanthriplatin is distributed in a similar manner to other platinum-based anticancer agents, residing primarily in the cell's nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results confirm that the drug's anticancer activity is exerted through interacting with cells' DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows the drug to remain intact, facilitating its entry into the cell's nucleus to effectively exert its anticancer activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • We propose a novel paradigm for the regulation of CAD in the nucleus, involving unrestricted accessibility of chromosomal DNA at the initial phase of apoptosis, followed by its nuclear immobilization that may prevent the release of the active nuclease into the extracellular environment. (nih.gov)
  • Transfection
  • Transfection efficiency of lipoplexes in Vero (A) and A549 (B) cells post-incubated for 1 h with different TCHD concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • Incubating the cells with TCHD for 1 h immediately after incubation with the lipoplexes, indeed caused an increase in transfection efficiency in both Vero and A549 cells (Figure 6A and B). A maximal increase was observed when the Vero and A549 cells were incubated with 0.5 and 1.5% (w/v) TCHD, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • This increase is lower than observed with naked pDNA transfection, which can be attributed to cell division. (nih.gov)
  • Replication
  • Hepatitis C virus-induced cytoplasmic organelles use the nuclear transport machinery to establish an environment conducive to virus replication. (nih.gov)
  • Gene regulation during cell-cycle progression is an intricately choreographed process, ensuring accurate DNA replication and division. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These activities are necessary before DNA can be copied in preparation for cell division (DNA replication). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • Studies researching damaged dark cells due to genetic abnormalities or therapeutics are very important in attempting to understand the onset and mechanism of said balance impairments. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Our method allows us to specifically probe FG Nups in vivo, which provides insight into the organization and function of the NPC transport channel. (nih.gov)
  • Although compelling evidence supports the central role of caspase-activated DNase (CAD) in oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation in apoptotic nuclei, the regulation of CAD activity remains elusive in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Biology
  • DNA and Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Journal of Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell biology can be described as all of the following: Branch of science - A systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Recent evidence suggests that nucleoporins, well known components that control nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking, have wide-ranging functions in developmental gene regulation that potentially extend beyond their role in nuclear transport. (nih.gov)
  • plasmid
  • Lower panel: HuH-7 cells were co-transfected with an HBV pgRNA reporter plasmid and siRNAs. (nih.gov)
  • lysates
  • HCV infection increases RNA and protein levels of a subset of Nups.A) Total RNA was isolated from cell lysates at the indicated time points after infection of Huh7.5 cells with HCV, and levels of specific mRNA transcripts were assessed by qPCR. (nih.gov)
  • apoptosis
  • Upon induction of caspase-3-dependent apoptosis, activated CAD underwent progressive immobilization, paralleled by its attenuated extractability from the nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • percentage
  • H) Histograms of Oct4 expression show that 1-hr period of LIF stimulation (red) maintains a higher percentage of Oct4+ cells than 6-h period of LIF stimulation after 72 h. (nih.gov)
  • I) Oct4 expression of cells maintained for 72 h in different conditions shows that the percentage of Oct4+ cells in the 1-h period is higher than the 6-h period and comparable to 500 pM constant LIF levels. (nih.gov)
  • The number of cells expressing CAD-GFP was expressed as the percentage of nuclei remaining fluorescent upon permeabilization of cells. (nih.gov)
  • Major
  • The large and hydrophobic nature of the phenanthridine ligand introduces steric hindrance within the major groove of the DNA, which impedes RNA polymerase II, a major protein used by the cell to transcribe DNA. (wikipedia.org)