• Among them, the activation of self-reactive lymphocytes and their infiltration in the pancreas, followed by the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α ), which united with its membrane receptor on the PBC, activate intracellular signaling pathways that end in the induction of proapoptotic mechanisms and, in some cases, cell death through necroptosis [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Western blot analysis revealed that the amounts of hepatic Gpx1 and Gsr proteins increased considerably after CCl 4 administration. (hindawi.com)
  • Although phosphorylation of eIF2α results in global translational suppression, it specifically increases translation of activating transcription factor (ATF)4 through ribosomal leaky scanning of the mini open reading frames (ORFs) in the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA ( 19 , 22 , 23 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis during starvation and has an excellent therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in rodents and monkeys. (mendeley.com)
  • Genetic factors have an important role in its appearance and progression [ 10 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Numerous critical genes are tightly regulated by HIF-1, including growth factors, oncoproteins, transcription factors, and glycolytic enzymes ( 62a ), which mediate a shift in cellular metabolism toward energy conserving anaerobic glycolysis ( 53 ). (asm.org)
  • These constitute 70-80% of the total mass of the islet [ 2 ] and are responsible for the synthesis, storage, and secretion of insulin, a key hormone in the regulation of human metabolism [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Insulin resistance, often associated with obesity and physical inactivity, is a major factor in the progression of T2DM. (springer.com)
  • In the central nervous system, heteromeric metabotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptors through adenylyl cyclase regulate cAMP levels, which may control transcription factor binding to the cAMP response element. (semanticscholar.org)
  • High hepatotropic effect is attributed to tetrachloromethane (CCl 4 ), which its biotransformation is associated with the functioning of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase system and free radicals production [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Tatsuka & Mitsui in "Elongation factor-1 alpha gene determines susceptibility to transformation" (Nature, 1992, vol. 359, pp. 333-336). (freepatentsonline.com)