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  • AMPK
  • The work is of translational relevance for OA, since several drugs that activate AMPK are already in the clinic for arthritis (for example, allosteric AMPK activators sodium salicylate and high dose aspirin, and methotrexate, which activates AMPK by generating AICAR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • ATF4
  • Recently, ALP upregulation was shown to coincide with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated vascular calcification, specifically with expression of the transcription factor ATF4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using DNA microarray and network analyses of macrophages, they show compelling evidence that ATF4, which is involved in the ER stress response, plays an essential role in IL-6 expression induced by various metabolic stresses, including ER stress. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, they reveal that the ATF4 pathway has a synergistic effect on the Toll-like receptor-4 signaling pathway, enhancing IL-6 expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • IL-6 has been shown to play crucial roles in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes ( 19 ), raising the possibility that ATF4 signaling is a novel target for the treatment of metabolic diseases. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Tumor
  • Long-term alcohol and high fat diet feeding resulted in higher levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, impaired ER stress response, and higher incidence of liver tumor in older (aged 16 months) KO females than in either middle-aged (6 months) KOs or older (aged 16 months) wild type females. (frontiersin.org)
  • repression
  • The regulation of C/EBPβ is exerted in many manners, phosphorylation , acetylation , activation and repression via others transcription factors, oncogenic elements or chemokines , autoregulation, etc. (bionity.com)
  • Tissues
  • Pubmed ID: 9576942 Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) is a wide-spectrum mitogenic, angiogenic, and neurotrophic factor that is expressed at low levels in many tissues and cell types and reaches high concentrations in brain and pituitary. (jove.com)
  • processes
  • Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that inflammatory processes in the vascular wall are the decisive factor that accounts for the rate of lesion formation and clinical development in patients suffering from atherosclerosis [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Wnts are secreted to activate signaling processes controlling cell proliferation and body patterning throughout development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pancreatic
  • This study aims to examine effects of atorvastatin treatment on pancreatic β cell function in obese C57BL/6 J mice and the possible mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pancreatic β cell function of obese C57BL/6 J mice was preserved after atorvastatin treatment, and this improvement may be attributed to enhanced pancreas proliferation and amelioration of pancreatic ER stress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2017
  • reflecting the increase in cases of this disease with the ZIKV outbreak in 2015-2017 ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Insulin
  • Insulin resistance, often associated with obesity and physical inactivity, is a major factor in the progression of T2DM. (springer.com)
  • Pathological factors such as insulin resistance and β-cell failure have to be taken into account. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic
  • However, lack of hot-spot BRAF , RAS , or NF1 driver mutations in the triple wild-type subtype accounting for 6-20% of melanomas [ 2 , 3 ], and variability of phenotype of patient-derived melanoma cell lines representing the same genetic subtype [ 4 ] enforce combining both genetic and phenotypic traits to achieve more accurately stratification of melanoma patients. (springer.com)
  • signals
  • Dead hepatocytes are engulfed by macrophages, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory signals that activate stellate cells, ultimately inducing fibrosis (Fig. 1 a). (springer.com)
  • family
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF) is one of the representative members of the neurotrophin family, which includes brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5). (medsci.org)
  • This domain is involved in dimerization and DNA binding like other transcription factors of the leucine zipper family like c-Fos and Jun. (bionity.com)
  • The different members of C/EBP family can form homodimers, heterodimers with another form of the C/EBPs and with other transcription factors that may or may not contain the leucine zipper domain. (bionity.com)