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  • serine
  • This is a heterogeneous group of serine/threonine protein kinases that do not have an activating compound and are either non-specific or their specificity has not been analysed to date. (genome.jp)
  • Downstream
  • Downstream effector of CDC42 which mediates CDC42-dependent cell migration via phosphorylation of BCAR1. (uniprot.org)
  • The current biochemical model depicts that, upon ligand binding to cell surface receptors or in response to cellular stress, Cdc42 can be activated to recognize specific downstream effectors to mediate multifacet cell functions. (pnas.org)
  • Indeed, because dysregulation of EGFR-activated pathways, often a consequence of receptor overexpression or mutation, has been shown to be correlated with many types of cancer, one promising step toward identifying mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis associated with aberrant EGFR signaling would be to generate a quantitative comparison of a broad variety of specific cellular signaling events downstream of this RTK under multiple biological cell states. (mcponline.org)
  • tyrosine
  • In the particular case of EGFR, ligand binding activates the receptor and dimerization results in autophosphorylation of selected tyrosine sites in the C-terminal region ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
  • mutants
  • To date, however, most studies of Cdc42 function in mammalian cells have been carried out by forced expression of dominant-negative or active Cdc42 mutants in clonal cell lines, because conventional gene targeting of Cdc42 in mice led to embryonic lethality at embryonic day 7.5, hindering the effort to study Cdc42 function in mammalian physiology ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly
  • Interestingly, an examination of Cdc42 activity in WT adult mice of various ages reveals that the relative Cdc42-GTP level of older animals is significantly higher than that of younger ones in diverse tissues, including heart, brain, lung, liver, bone marrow, spleen, and kidney ( Fig. 1 A and data not shown), raising the possibility that increased Cdc42 activity is involved in the normal aging process. (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, Rga1, a Cdc42 GAP, exhibits transient localization to a site near the bud neck and to the division site during cytokinesis and G1, and this temporal change of Rga1 distribution is necessary for determination of a proper growth site. (biologists.org)
  • endocytosis
  • Here, we use a combination of biochemical and cell biological approaches to show that the endocytosis of E-cadherin is regulated by the activity state of E-cadherin through the activation of the Rac/Cdc42-IQGAP1 system induced by E-cadherin trans interaction. (rupress.org)
  • regulation
  • Our results present an interesting possibility linking Cdc42 activity to genome maintenance, cellular senescence regulation, and mammalian aging. (pnas.org)
  • Gene
  • Gene targeting of Cdc42GAP in mice produces a Cdc42 gain-of-activity mouse model that phenotypically displays decreased cell number and increased basal apoptosis during the perinatal period ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Increased Cdc42 activity in the course of natural aging in mice and the effects of Cdc42GAP gene targeting on the growth, bone structure, life span, and fertility period of adult mice. (pnas.org)
  • activation
  • Furthermore, Cdc42 activation is sufficient to promote a premature cellular senescence phenotype that depends on p53. (pnas.org)
  • receptor
  • Signaling through this receptor leads to secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines such as TGF-β and possibly PGE 2 , IL-10, and platelet-activating factor (PAF). (rupress.org)
  • Significantly
  • Significantly, studies with dominant-negative Rho family members have demonstrated that functional Rac and Cdc42 are required for Ras-mediated transformation ( 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • family
  • The Rho family members Cdc42, Rac, and Rho induce formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) 4 -rich filopodia, lamellipodia, and stress fibers, respectively ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • focal
  • Similarities in the distributions of DPAK, integrin, and phosphotyrosine suggested an association of DPAK with focal adhesions and Cdc42- and Rac-induced focal adhesion-like focal complexes. (asm.org)
  • growth
  • The position at which the Cdc42-GTP cluster develops changes rapidly around the division site during the first step but becomes stabilized in the second step, suggesting that an axis of polarized growth is determined in mid G1. (biologists.org)