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  • cytoskeleton
  • The beta and gamma actins coexist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton, and as mediators of internal cell motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell's signaling pathways cause actin to affect intracellular organization of the cytoskeleton and often consequently, the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the actin cytoskeleton in the neck of the spine compartmentalizes the LTP induced response to the innervated dendritic spine, which leads to the specificity of LTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The actin filament system, a prominent part of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells, is both a static structure and a dynamic network that can undergo rearrangements: it is thought to be involved in processes such as cell movement and phagocytosis, as well as muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin and its regulatory proteins are the most abundant set of proteins within cells, and they form one of the major cytoskeletal systems-the actin filament cytoskeleton. (springer.com)
  • While much has been learned about the roles of the actin cytoskeleton in non-neuronal cells, our understanding of the full spectrum of the functions of actin in neurons is far from complete. (springer.com)
  • This book is an introduction to the interface between the actin cytoskeleton and the myriad of issues fundamental to the understanding of nervous system function. (springer.com)
  • This text is intended for neuroscientists interested in investigating the actin cytoskeleton in the context of their particular neuroscience research program, and its chapters are cross-referenced in order to assist readers in finding relevant information that is covered in greater depth in other chapters. (springer.com)
  • Hsp27 is involved in a variety of cellular functions including molecular chaperone activity, control of apoptosis, and regulation of the actin filament cytoskeleton [ 1 - 3 , 5 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The toxin comes from the mushroom Amanita phalloides , and it kills you buy mucking with your actin cytoskeleton . (everything2.com)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis shuts down during mitosis in eukaryotic cells because all of the required actin is hoarded by the cytoskeleton. (the-scientist.com)
  • Using two different methods that released some of the actin from the cytoskeleton but did not decrease membrane tension, they demonstrated that it is possible to restart endocytosis. (the-scientist.com)
  • Proteins from adhesion structures connect the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton, allowing the growing actin network to push the plasma membrane and the contractile cables (stress fibers) to pull the cell body. (hindawi.com)
  • In this cycle, proteins from adhesion structures connect the ECM to the actin cytoskeleton (Figure 1 ), allowing the growing actin network to push the plasma membrane forward and the contractile stress fibers to pull the cell body and retract the tail. (hindawi.com)
  • At the molecular level, talin is one of the first proteins involved in the connection between the ECM and the actin cytoskeleton. (hindawi.com)
  • monomer
  • It can be present as either a free monomer called G-actin (globular) or as part of a linear polymer microfilament called F-actin (filamentous), both of which are essential for such important cellular functions as the mobility and contraction of cells during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • G-actin is the monomer form of actin, and is uniformly distributed throughout the axon and the dendrite. (wikipedia.org)
  • G-actin are the monomer building blocks that assemble via weak noncovalent interactions to form F-actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The domain displays consensus elements present in eukaryotic WASP family NPFs which include an actin monomer-binding region as well as an Arp2/3 binding C (central or cofilin homology) and A (acidic) region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The actin monomer-binding region of ActA has functional properties like the WASP-Homology-2 (WH2) or V domain, but differs in the sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon interaction with F-actin the pyrene-Hsp27 excimer fluorescence was largely lost, suggesting that Hsp27 interacts with F-actin as a monomer, consistent with the acrylodan-Hsp27 results. (hindawi.com)
  • It is also unknown if Hsp27 interacts with the actin filament as a monomer, dimer, or higher multimer. (hindawi.com)
  • regulation
  • Force transmission to the extracellular matrix depends on several parameters including the regulation of actin dynamics in adhesion structures, the contractility of stress fibers, and the mechanosensitive response of adhesion structures. (hindawi.com)
  • 1) The mechanism by which actin assembly is initiated in nascent adhesions, (2) the mechanosensitive maturation of FAs, (3) the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of stress fibers, and (4) the regulation of actin assembly in focal adhesions. (hindawi.com)
  • dynamics
  • Hsp27 has been implicated in numerous physiological and pathological processes that involve its interaction with actin and its control of actin dynamics [ 11 - 25 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The migratory cycle is a complex process in which actin dynamics play a central role at every step. (hindawi.com)
  • intracellular
  • To anchor the protrusion, the cell front interacts with the extracellular matrix (ECM) by forming nascent adhesions (or focal complexes) that are connected to the intracellular lamellipodial actin network. (hindawi.com)
  • Biochemistry
  • Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. (innovations-report.com)
  • molecular
  • But actin is different because it absolutely requires the molecular folding help of TRiC. (innovations-report.com)
  • It seems like this molecular trade-off made the versatility of actin possible", comments Balchin. (innovations-report.com)
  • Here we highlight recent findings on the molecular mechanisms by which actin assembly is regulated in adhesion structures and the molecular basis of the mechanosensitivity of focal adhesions. (hindawi.com)
  • cell's
  • The researchers showed that, during mitosis, much of the actin is engaged with the cell's rigid cortex, which causes the cells to become round during mitosis, and none is available to help out with endocytosis. (the-scientist.com)
  • cortical
  • Cell surface (cortical) actin remodeling is a cyclic (9-step) process where each step is directly responsive to a cell signaling mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • The fluorescence of acrylodan attached to Hsp27 increased 4-5-fold upon interaction with F-actin. (hindawi.com)
  • An early study of the Hsp25 (murine and avian isoform of Hsp27)-actin interaction concluded that Hsp25 was an actin filament barbed-end-capping protein based on limited evidence [ 26 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to address some of these issues we have investigated the interaction between Hsp27 and actin, in vitro , using fluorescence probes attached to Hsp27. (hindawi.com)
  • conformational
  • NPFs in the mammalian cell recruit and bind to the already existing actin-related-protein 2 and 3 complex (Arp2/3 complex) and induce an activating conformational change of the Arp2/3 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Left, scheme of a migrating cell displaying characteristic actin structures: lamellipodial and filopodial actin networks and the three classes of stress fibers (transverse arcs, dorsal stress fibers, ventral stress fibers). (hindawi.com)
  • cell cortex
  • Actin patches are highly motile, they first assemble at sites of polarized cell growth and then move slowly and nondirectionally along the cell cortex. (uniprot.org)
  • During mitosis, membrane tension is high, the actin (purple) is sequestered at the cell cortex, and CME can't proceed because actin is required to help stretch the clathrin-coated pits to form full vesicles (2). (the-scientist.com)
  • membrane protrusions
  • Actin assembly drives the extension of flat membrane protrusions called lamellipodia and finger-like protrusions called filopodia to push the membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • Actin-propelled invasive membrane protrusions promote fusogenic protein engagement during cell-cell fusion. (nih.gov)
  • synapse
  • Additionally, actin is present at the active zone and plays a role in moving vesicles to the active zone for exocytosis into the synapse. (wikipedia.org)