• Actin therefore contributes to processes such as the intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles as well as muscular contraction and cellular migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • To anchor the protrusion, the cell front interacts with the extracellular matrix (ECM) by forming nascent adhesions (or focal complexes) that are connected to the intracellular lamellipodial actin network. (hindawi.com)
  • Fluorescence emission intensity from a culture of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells stained with BODIPY FL phallacidin, which binds to the intracellular filamentous actin network. (microscopyu.com)
  • However, AITC-treated seedlings of all transgenic lines tested displayed morphologies and intracellular movements similar to that of the corresponding untreated and control-treated plants, following overnight incubation in an AITC-absent environment, indicating that AITC-induced decline in actin-related movements is a reversible process. (mdpi.com)
  • Sporsheim B, Øverby A, Bones AM. Allyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits Actin-Dependent Intracellular Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana . (mdpi.com)
  • 4 report that, in human cells, polymerized actin promotes the processing (resection) of broken DNA ends in chromatin (the compartments involved were not determined) and facilitates a DNA-repair pathway called homologous recombination (HR, not shown), although the underlying mechanism is unclear. (nature.com)
  • Still, Traub suspects that actin unavailability is not the only regulatory mechanism controlling endocytosis. (the-scientist.com)
  • The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. (innovations-report.com)
  • This study reveals an unexpected actin-dependent but microtubule-independent mechanism for long-range transport of vesicles in mouse oocytes. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Dr Schuh will also talk about the actin-dependent mechanism of asymmetric spindle positioning in mouse oocytes. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • In addition to providing a distinct cellular mechanism for increasing F-actin, this manipulation targeted only a subset of cells, thus eliminating potentially confounding non-cell-autonomous effects that might be expected from bath application of a drug. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, ATP-actin units bound to profilin will dissociate from cofilin and are then free to polymerize. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Inhibiting cofilin, the primary downstream target of PAK and a major actin depolymerizing factor, prevented Shank3 siRNA from reducing NMDAR currents and F-actin clusters. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, these results suggest that Shank3 deficiency induces NMDAR hypofunction by interfering with the Rac1/PAK/cofilin/actin signaling, leading to the loss of NMDAR membrane delivery or stability. (jneurosci.org)
  • We sequenced the six genes that encode conventional Drosophila actins and found that they specify amino acid replacements in 27 of 376 positions. (nih.gov)
  • To be sure that the actin response is truly associated to the resistance phenotype, the researchers conducted experiments in which genes were silenced to impair actin polymerization. (innovations-report.com)
  • The majority of actin genes are interrupted by introns , with up to 6 introns in any of 19 well-characterised locations. (wikidoc.org)
  • Higher plants contain families of actin-encoding genes that are divergent and differentially expressed. (genetics.org)
  • DNA sequences are provided for production of beta -actin or untranslated regions of beta -actin genes may be employed in conjunction with genes encoding for polypeptides for efficient expression in mammalian hosts. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • ABPs-Denotes genes that interact directly with actin or that are members of well-defined actin-associated complexes (e.g. (upstate.edu)
  • Left, scheme of a migrating cell displaying characteristic actin structures: lamellipodial and filopodial actin networks and the three classes of stress fibers (transverse arcs, dorsal stress fibers, ventral stress fibers). (hindawi.com)
  • Invasive cell migration requires the formation of various structures, such as invadopodia and pseudopodia, which require actin assembly that is regulated by specialized actin nucleation factors. (nih.gov)
  • Royle and colleagues first observed that in HeLa cells, cortactin, a protein that activates actin polymerization, was present in clathrin structures during interphase but was greatly reduced during mitosis. (the-scientist.com)
  • These structures provide architectural specificities for different regions of the cell, and can also organize into more complex actin-based machineries. (mpg.de)
  • the conversion of G-actin to F-actin is catalyzed by small concentrations of magnesium ion, is reversible, and is accompanied by the conversion of the bound ATP molecule to ADP and phosphate and the conversion of one reactive -thiol group to an unreactive form. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this study we now present direct chemical evidence for the existence of a short-lived species, an activated form of G-actin, which can be detected by changes in the accessibility of the free thiol groups on the G-actin molecule when modified by a specific thiol-group-targeted reagent, 7-dimethylamino-4-methyl-3-N-maleimidylcoumarin (DACM). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Such changes at least involve certain portions of the G-actin molecule that contain Cys-217 and Cys-374. (biomedsearch.com)
  • showing that ATP hydrolysis and release of a phosphate group results in one segment of actin switching from a strand to a helical conformation. (curriki.org)
  • Actin-propelled invasive membrane protrusions promote fusogenic protein engagement during cell-cell fusion. (nih.gov)
  • Actin is implicated in chemotaxis , phagocytosis , pinocytosis , membrane ruffling , and pretty much anything that requires the shape of a cell to change. (everything2.com)
  • Actin assembly drives the extension of flat membrane protrusions called lamellipodia and finger-like protrusions called filopodia to push the membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • RESTORATION HARDWARE: During interphase, mammalian cells have low membrane tension, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) proceeds normally with no special need for actin (1). (the-scientist.com)
  • During mitosis, membrane tension is high, the actin (purple) is sequestered at the cell cortex, and CME can't proceed because actin is required to help stretch the clathrin-coated pits to form full vesicles (2). (the-scientist.com)
  • This finding nixed the idea that increased membrane tension alone is responsible for the endocytosis shutdown, and instead led the team to propose that actin availability determines whether endocytosis proceeds. (the-scientist.com)
  • Royle's team is now addressing how the endocytic machinery is able to sense high membrane tension and recruit actin within cells of tissues undergoing physical stretching or in polarized epithelial cells, which have different tensions at their basolateral and apical membranes. (the-scientist.com)
  • The overall outward-directed movement of the vesicle-actin network is driven by recruitment of vesicles to the plasma membrane in the periphery of the oocyte. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The cortex is a thin, crosslinked actin network lying immediately beneath the plasma membrane of animal cells. (nih.gov)
  • Heinrich D., Ecke M., Jasnin M., Engel U., Gerisch G.: Reversible membrane pearling in live cells upon destruction of the actin cortex. (mpg.de)
  • Actin patches are highly motile, they first assemble at sites of polarized cell growth and then move slowly and nondirectionally along the cell cortex. (uniprot.org)
  • In the cytosol (fluid component of cytoplasm), actin is predominantly bound to adenosine triphosphate , or ATP. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Being organized in a dynamic vesicle-actin network allows vesicles to move in a local random manner and a global directed manner at the same time: they can reach any position in the cytoplasm, but also move directionally to the cell surface as a collective. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • They also provided strong evidence that the Rac/Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) β-pix localizes to sites of cell-cell contact through a direct interaction with cadherin/β-catenin/scribble, and it promotes SV clustering by increasing actin polymerization at these sites ( Sun and Bamji, 2011 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, CP appears to cap F-actin barbed ends via the independent interaction of both tentacles with actin. (plos.org)
  • While other researchers were consumed with showing a direct role for actin in the formation of endocytic vesicles, this study shows that if actin is not available, vesicle budding cannot occur," says Linton Traub, a cell biologist at the University of Pittsburgh who was not involved in the study. (the-scientist.com)
  • Polymerization of actin also increases the mobility of DNA breaks that will be repaired by HR and the ability of a subset of DNA breaks to form clusters in the nucleus. (nature.com)