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  • hydrolysis
  • We consider the thin filament as an elastic rod under a filament force, which is driven by multiple stochastic myosin motors that convert the chemical energy of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis into stored elastic energy and then function like swinging arms. (researchsea.com)
  • During the polymerization of actin, hydrolysis of bound ATP occurs in two consecutive steps: chemical cleavage of the high-energy nucleotide and slow release of the γ-phosphate. (springer.com)
  • Combeau C, Carlier MF (1988) Probing the mechanism of ATP hydrolysis on F-actin using vanadate and the structural analogs of phosphate BeF-3 and A1F-4. (springer.com)
  • c) A schematic diagram of the interaction of two‐headed myosin crossbridges and a thin actin filament, coupled with the hydrolysis of ATP. (els.net)
  • inhibitors
  • Andruchov O, Andruchova O, Galler S (2006) The catch state of mollusc catch muscle is established during activation: experiments on skinned fibre preparations of the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis L. using the myosin inhibitors orthovanadate and blebbistatin. (springer.com)
  • Although the role of actin in the secretory pathway has long been elusive, a breakthrough in our understanding has come with the use of highly specific inhibitors of actin polymerization, such as latrunculins and botulinum C2 toxin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To inhibit contraction, embryonic chick hearts at stages 10-12 (10-16 somites, 33-48 h) were exposed to the myosin inhibitors 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), ML-7, Y-27632, and blebbistatin. (springer.com)
  • embryonic
  • We conclude that Mbnl3 null lines must be created to determine if expression of this Mbnl gene is essential for normal embryonic muscle development. (ufl.edu)
  • These results suggest that active contraction is not required for normal c-looping of the embryonic chick heart between stages 10 and 12. (springer.com)
  • fibre
  • I performed a broad range of functional and structural experiments including skinned muscle fibre mechanics, small-angle X-ray scattering as well as immunoblotting and histochemical techniques. (diva-portal.org)
  • Interestingly, according to my results, point mutations in myosin and actin differently modify myosin binding to actin, cross-bridge formation and muscle fibre force production revealing divergent mechanisms, that is, gain versus loss of function (papers I, II and IV). (diva-portal.org)
  • Nemaline myopathy, the most common congenital myopathy, is characterized by muscle fibre atrophy. (diva-portal.org)
  • These led to divergent effects on protein content and muscle fibre size. (diva-portal.org)
  • Indeed, in the soleus, a general protein loss and atrophy was found whilst in tibialis anterior, a preferential myosin loss without any clear reduction in the mean muscle fibre size was noticed. (diva-portal.org)
  • Vertical direction is parallel to the fibre axis of muscle. (els.net)
  • Each muscle fibre has one motor neuron associated with it. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • polymerization
  • Bubb MR, Senderowicz AM, Sausville EA, Duncan KL, Korn ED (1994) Jasplakinolide, a cytotoxic natural product, induces actin polymerization and competitively inhibits the binding of phalloidin to F-actin. (springer.com)
  • Dancker P, Hess L (1990) Phalloidin reduces the release of inorganic phosphate during actin polymerization. (springer.com)
  • Dancker P, Low I, Hasselbach W, Wieland T (1975) Interaction of actin with phalloidin: polymerization and stabilization of F-actin. (springer.com)
  • This observation suggests that during actin filament formation, in addition to the obligatory nucleation- condensation pathway involving UD, a productive filament dimer, a facultative, LD-based pathway is implicated whose abundance strongly depends on the exact polymerization conditions chosen. (rupress.org)
  • organization
  • Our results show that FIM5 is required for the organization of actin cytoskeleton in pollen grains and pollen tubes, and FIM5 loss-of-function associates with a delay of pollen germination and inhibition of pollen tube growth. (plantcell.org)
  • This regular organization gives the muscle cells a striated appearance. (edu.au)
  • This irregular organization gives the muscle a non-striated appearance. (edu.au)
  • divalent cation
  • Estes JE, Selden LA, Kinosian HJ, Gershman LC (1992) Tightly-bound divalent cation of actin. (springer.com)
  • Regarding the structure and mechanical properties of the F-actin filament at steady state, no significant correlation with the divalent cation residing in its HAS was found. (rupress.org)
  • Together, our data indicate that whereas the G-actin conformation is tightly controlled by the divalent cation in its HAS, the F-actin conformation appears more robust than this variation. (rupress.org)
  • For instance, depending on whether Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ is bound to the high-affinity divalent cation binding site (HAS) 1 of the G-actin molecule, its biochemistry is significantly altered. (rupress.org)
  • reported that the torsional rigidity of Ca-F-actin was about three times as large as that of Mg-F-actin, whereas the flexural rigidity was practically independent of the kind of divalent cation bound to the HAS. (rupress.org)
  • structural
  • Synchrotron X‐rays with high brilliance are an indispensable tool for muscle structural research. (els.net)
  • phalloidin
  • Barden JA, Miki M, Hambly BD, Dos Remedios CG (1987) Localization of the phalloidin and nucleotide-binding sites on actin. (springer.com)
  • Faulstich H, Schafer AJ, Weckauf M (1977) The dissociation of the phalloidin-actin complex. (springer.com)
  • Cooper JA (1987) Effects of cytochalasin and phalloidin on actin. (springer.com)
  • mechanisms
  • However, the precise mechanisms by which actin cables are generated and maintained remain largely unknown. (plantcell.org)
  • Despite intensive study for more than 80 years, the biophysical mechanisms that drive and regulate looping remain poorly understood, although some investigators have speculated that differential cytoskeletal contraction supplies the driving force for c-looping. (springer.com)
  • diffraction
  • X‐ray diffraction patterns from live frog skeletal muscles taken with an image plate detector (see Wakabayashi and Amemiya, ) at the small‐angle X‐ray scattering/diffraction beamline of the Photon Factory (Japan). (els.net)
  • High‐resolution X‐ray diffraction patterns from live frog skeletal muscles taken with a CCD detector at the BioCAT beamline of the Advanced Photon Sources (USA). (els.net)