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  • mammalian cells
  • pruned encodes the Drosophila homologue of serum response factor (SRF), which functions with an ETS domain ternary complex factor as a growth-factor-activated transcription complex in mammalian cells. (biologists.org)
  • Further support for the concept that this modification of eIF5A is the major function of spermidine, particularly when grown with limiting concentrations of spermidine is that several of the functions that have previously been reported for spermidine have also been described for hypusinated eIF5A in yeast and mammalian cells ( 5 , 11 , 16 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • Chemotherapeutic agents such as daunorubicin and etoposide enhance the de novo synthesis of ceramide in studies done on mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several studies have demonstrated that the presence of TcdB in mammalian cells leads to rapid changes within cell morphology and cell signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • forwarded that TcdB has serious impacts in other mammalian cells such as chinese hamster ovary cells, human cervical epithelial cells, mouse adrenal cells, rat hepatocytes and rat astrocytes (Fig.3). (wikipedia.org)
  • They can exist for minutes or years with an average lifespan of 1-2 days in mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • overexpression
  • In response to epidermal growth factor, SHIP2 expression could recruit the ITSN1 short form (ITSN1-S) to the cell membrane, while SHIP2 overexpression did not modulate the ITSN-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Overexpression of RHO4 suppresses the growth defect in rho3 cells. (sdbonline.org)
  • It is proposed that ALDOA overexpression enhances glycolysis in these tumor cells, promoting their growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • The findings that dominant mutations in either TOR1 ( TOR1-1 , Ser1972Arg) or TOR2 ( TOR2-1 , Ser1975Ile) confer complete resistance to the growth-inhibitory properties of rapamycin and that such mutations prevent the binding of FKBP12-rapamycin to TOR demonstrated that TOR is the relevant target through which rapamycin blocks cell growth ( 19 , 63 , 101 , 145 , 171 ). (asm.org)
  • Conditional mutations that inactivate Cdc42 or its guanine nucleotide exchange factor Cdc24 result in a failure to polarize actin patches and cables to the incipient bud site. (rupress.org)
  • endocytosis
  • The cause of cytotoxic activity by TcdB within the host cell is mainly mediated via receptor endocytosis[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • These branches arise by extension of long cytoplasmic processes from terminal tracheal cells towards oxygen-starved tissues, followed by formation of a lumen within the processes. (biologists.org)
  • In pruned loss of function mutants, terminal cells fail to extend cytoplasmic projections. (biologists.org)
  • How cells control cytoplasmic actin assembly. (springer.com)
  • concentration
  • 0.2% of the spermidine concentration present in wild-type cells. (pnas.org)
  • indeed, near-normal growth is found when polyamine auxotrophs are grown in 10 −8 M spermidine and the internal concentration of spermidine is very low (1/240 of wild-type cells) ( Table 1 , Y535, Y536, and Y537). (pnas.org)
  • The elongation phase begins when the concentration of short, F-actin polymers is significantly larger than at equilibrium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxin concentration of the supernatant is proportional to the organism cell count. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • The epithelial cells present in the ciliary body actively secretes sodium and bicarbonates and other solutes such as ascorbates into the aqueous humor, resulting in the movement of water from ciliary stromal ultra-filtrate pool to the posterior chamber for the formation of aqueous humor [ 2 , 3 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • interaction
  • Specifically associates with actin cytoskeleton in the G2 phase of the cell cycle and which is favored by interaction with NOSIP and results in a reduced enzymatic activity. (abcam.com)
  • Our findings show the macrolide 'tail' to be fundamental for the depolymerisation effect of actin-binding macrolides and that it is the tail which forms the initial interaction with the actin rather than the macrocycle, as previously believed. (springer.com)
  • As cortactin is known to promote actin polymerization by the Arp2/3 complex, this interaction seems to promote actin assembly. (wikipedia.org)