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  • proteins
  • Cell polarization involves the vectorial delivery of lipids, proteins, and extracellular matrix or cell wall components to specific locations on the plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • Coincident with the transcriptional induction of genes encoding peroxisomal proteins, the size and number of peroxisomes in a cell change in response to environmental cues. (rupress.org)
  • These observations led us to hypothesize that arsenic might inhibit TRiC function, required for folding of actin , tubulin, and other proteins postsynthesis. (genetics.org)
  • Previously, STK35L1 was named as Clik1 (CLP36 Interacting Kinase 1) based on a study that showed an association of STK35 with CLP36 after overexpression of both proteins in osteosarcoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bork, P., Sander, C. and Valencia, A. (1992) An ATPase domain in prokaryotic cell cycle proteins related to actin, hsp70 and hexokinase. (springer.com)
  • Individual proteins are synthesized continuously throughout the Escherichia coli cell cycle. (springer.com)
  • In eukaryotic cells, proteins, nucleic acids and small molecules are distributed by specific trafficking mechanisms rather than by free diffusion as is largely the case in bacteria and archaea [ 4 , 5 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In animals these kinases have reported roles in the regulation of diverse processes, including cell proliferation control, activity of proto-oncogenic proteins, apoptosis, centrosome duplication, and organization of neuronal dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, the cyclase-associated protein family (CAP) is a family of highly conserved actin-binding proteins present in a wide range of organisms including yeast, flies, plants, and mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins that bind F-actin often regulate F-actin assembly and its interaction with other proteins, while proteins that interact with G-actin often control the availability of unpolymerised actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to actin-binding, CAPs can have additional roles, and may act as bifunctional proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the N-terminal adenylate cyclase-interacting domain, and the C-terminal actin-binding domain, it possesses two other domains: a proline-rich domain that interacts with Src homology 3 (SH3) domains of specific proteins, and a domain that is responsible for CAP oligomerisation to form multimeric complexes (although oligomerisation appears to involve the N- and C-terminal domains as well). (wikipedia.org)
  • RhoA, and the other Rho GTPases, are part of a larger family of related proteins known as the Ras superfamily, a family of proteins involved in the regulation and timing of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • ROCK kinases induce actomyosin-based contractility and phosphorylate TAU and MAP2 involved in regulating myosins and other actin-binding proteins in order to assist in cell migration and detachment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in cell motility, structure and integrity. (wikipedia.org)
  • SRF may bring a number of other proteins to the promoter of skeletal actin, such as andogen receptor, and thereby contribute to induction of skeletal actin gene expression by androgenic (often termed "anabolic") steroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The evolutionary origin of actin can be traced to prokaryotic cells, which have equivalent proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large number of illnesses and diseases are caused by mutations in alleles of the genes that regulate the production of actin or of its associated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Being a nodular signaling molecule, PAK1 operates to converging station of a large number of signals triggered by proteins on the cell surface as well as upstream activators, and translates into specific phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with other subfamily of Rac and Rho proteins, they exert an important regulatory role specifically in cell motility and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • P11 has been implicated in the transportation of proteins involved in mood regulation, nociception, and cell polarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is involved in the trafficking of proteins to the plasma membrane and can be expressed on the cell surface as a receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the transported proteins are cell surface receptors in signal transduction pathways and ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complexed with the annexin II, p11 binds receptor and channel proteins and guides them to the cell surface, resulting in increased membrane localization and consequent magnified functional expression of these proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • DnaK-NBD is a member of the sugar kinase superfamily that includes Hsp70s and the cytoskeletal protein actin. (pnas.org)
  • Expressed in ovarian and colorectal cancer cell lines (at protein level). (abcam.com)
  • NDR (nuclear dbf2-related) kinases, are an ancient and highly conserved subclass of AGC protein kinases that control diverse processes related to cell morphogenesis, proliferation, and mitotic events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Starting at the N-terminus (or front of the protein), IQGAP1 contains a calponin homology domain (CHD), which mediates actin-binding and binds calponin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of the protein is upregulated by gene amplification in two gastric cancer cell lines and its over-expression and distinct membrane localisation is also observed in a range of tumours. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proline-rich domain interacts with profilin, a protein that catalyses nucleotide exchange on G-actin monomers and promotes addition to barbed ends of filamentous F-actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, studies in cells have shown that ceramide-inducing agents such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha α (TNFα) and palmitate induce the ceramide-dependent removal of a phosphate group (dephosphorylation) of the retinoblastoma gene product RB and the enzymes, protein kinases B (AKT protein family) and C α (PKB and PKCα). (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin, alpha skeletal muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • One key transcription factor that activates skeletal actin gene expression is Serum Response Factor ("SRF"), a protein that binds to specific sites on the promoter DNA of the actin gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1942, Straub developed a novel technique for extracting muscle protein that allowed him to isolate substantial amounts of relatively pure actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Szent-Gyorgyi had previously described the more viscous form of myosin produced by slow muscle extractions as 'activated' myosin, and, since Straub's protein produced the activating effect, it was dubbed actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Straub continued to work on actin, and in 1950 reported that actin contains bound ATP and that, during polymerization of the protein into microfilaments, the nucleotide is hydrolyzed to ADP and inorganic phosphate (which remain bound to the microfilament). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rac1, also known as Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, is a protein found in human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of this superfamily appear to regulate a diverse array of cellular events, including the control of GLUT4 translocation to glucose uptake, cell growth, cytoskeletal reorganization, antimicrobial cytotoxicity, and the activation of protein kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activating or gain-of-function mutations of Rac1 are shown to play active roles in promoting mesenchymal-type of cell movement assisted by NEDD9 and DOCK3 protein complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rac1 protein is also necessary for glucose uptake in skeletal muscle activated by exercise and muscle stretching Activating mutations in Rac1 have been recently discovered in large-scale genomic studies involving melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The S100 protein is implicated in exocytosis and endocytosis by reorganization of F-actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • PRKAG1 NM_002733 Homo sapiens protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 1 non-catalytic subunit (PRKAG1), mRNA PRKAR1A NM_002734 Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells PRKRIP1 NM_024653 Binds double-stranded RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Yeast cells were induced to proliferate peroxisomes, and microarray transcriptional profiling was used to identify PEX genes encoding peroxins involved in peroxisome assembly and genes involved in peroxisome function. (rupress.org)
  • Mutations in E. coli genes causing inhibition of cell division and a filamentous phenotype have been isolated (Bachmann, 1990). (springer.com)
  • Aldea, M., Garrido, T., Pia, J. and Vicente, M. (1990) Division genes in Escherichia coli are expressed coordinately to cell septum requirements by gearbox promoters. (springer.com)
  • Importantly, approximately 10% of genes that show increased expression in metastatic cells are IQGAP1 binding partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skeletal actin itself, when expressed, causes expression of several other "myogenic genes", which are essential to muscle formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the different genes that regulate actin production in humans can cause muscular diseases, variations in the size and function of the heart as well as deafness. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, housekeeping genes are typically constitutive genes that are required for the maintenance of basic cellular function, and are expressed in all cells of an organism under normal and patho-physiological conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • STK35L1 regulates the expression of CDKN2A and inhibiting G1- to S-phase transition.Depletion of STK35L1 by siRNA impaired endothelial cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • All CAPs appear to contain a C-terminal actin-binding domain that regulates actin remodelling in response to cellular signals and is required for normal cellular morphology, cell division, growth and locomotion in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • RhoA also regulates the integrity of the extracellular matrix and the loss of corresponding cell-cell adhesions (primarily adherens and tight junctions) required for the migration of epithelial. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • For example, IQGAP1 expression is necessary for neuronal process outgrowth on the cell adhesion molecule PTPmu (PTPRM). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, RhoA is believed to act primarily at the rear (uropod) of migrating cells to promote detachment, similar to the attachment and detachment process found in the focal adhesion mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cell's ability to dynamically form microfilaments provides the scaffolding that allows it to rapidly remodel itself in response to its environment or to the organism's internal signals, for example, to increase cell membrane absorption or increase cell adhesion in order to form cell tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Required for the regulation of the actin polarization and bud emergence during cell cycle in G1. (uniprot.org)
  • Ceramide mediates many cell-stress responses, including the regulation of programmed cell death (apoptosis) and cell aging (senescence). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ceramide was also shown to activate PKCζ, implicating it to the inhibition of AKT, regulation of the voltage difference between the interior and exterior of the cell (membrane potential) and signaling functions that favor apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulator
  • Its expression and activity are constant throughout the cell cycle CCNK NM_001099402 Regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinases that mediates phosphorylation of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II CCNL1 NM_020307 Transcriptional regulator which participates in regulating the pre-mRNA splicing process CCNL2 NM_030937 Transcriptional regulator which participates in regulating the pre-mRNA splicing process. (wikipedia.org)
  • tubulin
  • Mutational loss of GimC function substantially reduces actin and tubulin folding efficiency although it does not cause obvious growth defects in yeast. (genetics.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • These cytoplasmic strands fuse into a transverse sheet of cytoplasm along the plane of future cell division, forming the phragmosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortical
  • Besides the mitotic spindle, the evolution of a band comprising cortical MTs and AFs, namely, the preprophase band (PPB), is evident in plant cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • membranes
  • Unlike the great majority of prokaryotes, eukaryotic cells possess an extended system of intracellular membranes that includes the eponymous eukaryotic organelle, the nucleus, and fully compartmentalizes the intracellular space. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Also, because of its hydrophobic nature, ceramide readily flip-flops across membranes as supported by studies in membrane models and membranes from red blood cells (erythrocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these processes are mediated by extensive and intimate interactions of actin with cellular membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokinesis
  • After cytokinesis, actin patches are depolarized in both the mother and daughter, and isotropic growth occurs. (rupress.org)
  • During cytokinesis, another plant-specific cytoskeletal structure called the phragmoplast guides vesicles in the creation of a new cell wall. (frontiersin.org)
  • During cytokinesis, the formation of a new cell plate is accomplished by a dynamic AF- and MT-based structure known as the phragmoplast. (frontiersin.org)
  • Other enzymes or organelles such as cilia can be anchored to this scaffolding in order to control the deformation of the external cell membrane, which allows endocytosis and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, checkpoint controls ensure that cell cycle events occur in the proper order even if some perturbation delays performance of a particular event. (rupress.org)
  • thus TRiC is indispensable for eukaryotic cell survival. (genetics.org)
  • The discovery of this 'dispersed eukaryome' implies that the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes was a complex cell that might have been capable of a primitive form of phagocytosis and thus conducive to endosymbiont capture. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • migration
  • Actin therefore contributes to processes such as the intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles as well as muscular contraction and cellular migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • Adult tissue stem cells play key roles in tissue maintenance/repair ( Nystul and Spradling, 2006 ). (rupress.org)
  • Both embryonic and larval NBs are polarized cells exhibiting strict division patterns crucial for their roles as stem cells. (rupress.org)
  • In unicellular eukaryotes, Ndr kinases play important roles in the control of the cell cycle and morphogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • We investigated the mechanism by which this occurs, revealing a novel centrosome cycle. (rupress.org)
  • We propose a two-step mechanism to ensure faithful spindle positioning: the novel centrosome cycle produces a single interphase MTOC, coarsely aligning the spindle, and spindle-cortex interactions refine this alignment. (rupress.org)
  • Drosophila
  • Drosophila melanogaster central brain neuroblasts are excellent models for stem cell asymmetric division. (rupress.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • Although the exact function of this gene has not yet been determined, its high similarity to yeast CDC10 and the high conservative nature of eukaryotic cell cycle machinery suggest a similar role to that of its yeast counterpart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taken together, these findings make the symbiogenetic scenario for the origin of eukaryotes considerably more plausible and the origin of the organizational complexity of eukaryotic cells more readily explainable than they appeared until recently. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Comparative analysis of eukaryotic cells and genomes confidently maps highly advanced functional systems and macromolecular complexes to the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • mitosis
  • PPB delineates the plane of cell division at the onset of mitosis and plays an essential role in division plane specification ( Mineyuki, 1999 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Mitotic spindle is a bipolar array of MTs that segregates chromosomes between daughter cells during mitosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • By G2, cells contain two mother/daughter centriole pairs that remain in proximity until mitosis. (rupress.org)
  • In order for mitosis to occur, the nucleus has to move into the center of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • When mitosis is completed, the cell plate and new cell wall form starting from the center along the plane occupied by the phragmosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • Chemotherapeutic agents such as daunorubicin and etoposide enhance the de novo synthesis of ceramide in studies done on mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • In contrast to animal cells, plant cells often contain large central vacuoles occupying up to 90% of the total cell volume and pushing the nucleus against the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proliferation
  • Needed for mating in haploid cells, induction of a mating-specific gene FUS1, induction of mating-specific morphologies, and pheromone-induced proliferation arrest. (uniprot.org)
  • arrest
  • Mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 is correlated with poor prognosis in small-cell lung cancer after surgical resection. (cancerindex.org)
  • centrosome
  • The second centriole is inactive and moves to the opposite side of the cell before being activated as a centrosome/MTOC. (rupress.org)
  • chromosome
  • These delays are thought to preserve genome integrity by allowing time for repair of the damage before cell cycle events like DNA replication or chromosome segregation render the damage unrepairable. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, interactions and cross-talk between MTs and AFs are involved in plant cell division ( Wasteneys and Galway, 2003 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Junctions
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-catenin participates in the formation and stabilization of adherens junctions by binding to β-catenin-cadherin complexes in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, it is likely that α-catenin acts in concert with vinculin to bind to actin and help stabilize the junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arp2/3 complexes are present at microfilament-microfilament junctions in lamellipodia, and help create the actin meshwork. (wikipedia.org)
  • retrograde
  • Focal adhesion components are amongst the known calpain substrates, and it is possible that calpain degrades these components to aid in focal adhesion disassembly The assembly of nascent focal adhesions is highly dependent on the process of retrograde actin flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • GTPases
  • Rac and Cdc42 are two Rho-family GTPases which are normally cytosolic but can also be found in the cell membrane under certain conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis
  • Apoptosis or programmed cell death is associated with liver injury caused by ConA [ 15 , 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Nuclear DNA damage can contribute to aging either indirectly (by increasing apoptosis or cellular senescence) or directly (by increasing cell dysfunction). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ceramide mediates many cell-stress responses, including the regulation of programmed cell death (apoptosis) and cell aging (senescence). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ceramide was also shown to activate PKCζ, implicating it to the inhibition of AKT, regulation of the voltage difference between the interior and exterior of the cell (membrane potential) and signaling functions that favor apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same results were found for certain inducers of apoptosis particularly stimulators of receptors in a class of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) called B-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • of TRPC decreased the cell routine S stage and cell migration, implicating an operating function for TRP-mediated Ca2+ entrance in cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ectopic expression of the embryonic transcription factor, NANOG, is shown to reverse senescence and restore the proliferation and differentiation potential of senescent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • motile cells
  • Lamellipodia are a characteristic feature at the front, leading edge, of motile cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In sessile cells, focal adhesions are quite stable under normal conditions, while in moving cells their stability is diminished: this is because in motile cells, focal adhesions are being constantly assembled and disassembled as the cell establishes new contacts at the leading edge, and breaks old contacts at the trailing edge of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • This previously unidentified progenitor occurs as a temporally discrete population during ES cell differentiation, and differs from the preceding and succeeding populations in gene expression and differentiation potential, with the unique ability to form surface ectoderm in response to BMP4 signalling. (biologists.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centrosome
  • Microtubules are nucleated and organized by microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs), such as the centrosome found in the center of many animal cells or the basal bodies found in cilia and flagella, or the spindle pole bodies found in most fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • mechanism
  • Entry of the virus into the host cell is receptor-mediated, but the precise mechanism of endocytosis is presently unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of this is poorly understood and is probably instigated by a variety of different methods depending on the circumstances of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cell
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • antibody
  • Wild-type (WT) and Radixin knockout (KO) 293T cell extracts (30 µg) were separated by 7.5% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with Radixin antibody (GTX105408) diluted at 1:1000. (genetex.com)
  • Cytoplasm
  • As a result, its levels in the cell are stabilized as it builds up in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the cell, ALDOA typically localizes to the cytoplasm, but it can localize to the nucleus during DNA synthesis of the cell cycle S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASFV is a large, double-stranded DNA virus which replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • EF-1 alpha promoter versions of the Tet-On 3G Tetracycline Inducible Expression System provide for consistent long-term expression of the Tet-On 3G transactivator, even in cell types known for their tendency to silence a CMV promoter over time, such as hematopoietic cells and stem cells. (clontech.com)
  • interactions
  • Functionally, HEPACAM is involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions and growth control of cancer cells, and is able to induce differentiation of glioblastoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular senescence
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanical
  • In cell biology, focal adhesions (also cell-matrix adhesions or FAs) are large macromolecular assemblies through which mechanical force and regulatory signals are transmitted between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and an interacting cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Concanavalin A (ConA) has the ability to stimulate the activation of T lymphocytes, mostly CD4 + T-cells, leading to immune hepatitis in mice [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • vitro
  • In vitro model systems, based on the differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells, provide an alternative means of identifying and characterizing these populations. (biologists.org)
  • Tissue
  • Thus, in a population of cells comprising a tissue with replicating cells, mutant cells will tend to be lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, infrequent mutations that provide a survival advantage will tend to clonally expand at the expense of neighboring cells in the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In estimates made for mice, DNA lesions occur on average 25 to 115 times per minute in each cell, or about 36,000 to 160,000 per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • first described a sequence tag corresponding to the NEDD9 3′ untranslated region based on the cloning of a group of genes predominantly expressed in the brain of embryonic, but not adult mice, a group of genes designated neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • migrate
  • It is also the site from which particles or aggregates attached to the cell surface migrate in a process known as cap formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • Once in place, a focal adhesion remains stationary with respect to the extracellular matrix, and the cell uses this as an anchor on which it can push or pull itself over the ECM. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumour
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings indicate that the new Ig-like cell adhesion molecule HEPACAM is also a tumour suppressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevalent
  • The accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage is more prevalent in certain types of cells, particularly in non-replicating or slowly replicating cells, such as cells in the brain, skeletal and cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma
  • The majority of replication and assembly occurs in discrete, perinuclear regions of the cell called virus factories, and finally progeny virions are transported to the plasma membrane along microtubules where they bud out or are propelled away along actin projections to infect new cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lamellipodium is born of actin nucleation in the plasma membrane of the cell and is the primary area of actin incorporation or microfilament formation of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratinocytes
  • Lamellipodia are found primarily in very mobile cells, for example the keratinocytes of fish and frogs, which are involved in the quick repair of wounds, crawling at speeds of 10-20 μm / min over epithelial surfaces. (wikipedia.org)