Loading...
  • fatty acid
  • Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA) composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the individual fatty acid profiles tend to be more instructive than broad lipid classifications with respect to subsequent impacts on serum cholesterol, and should therefore be considered when making dietary recommendations for the prevention of CVD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Study finds that the current level of evidence does not clearly support guidelines restricting saturated fatty acid consumption to reduce coronary risk nor does it support high consumption of polyunsaturated fats - such as omega 3 or omega 6 - to reduce coronary heart disease. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In chemistry , particularly in biochemistry , a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated . (wikipedia.org)
  • An important saturated fatty acid is stearic acid (n = 16), which when neutralized with lye is the most common form of soap . (wikipedia.org)
  • Arachidic acid, a saturated fatty acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rigidity of the double bond freezes its conformation and, in the case of the cis isomer, causes the chain to bend and restricts the conformational freedom of the fatty acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Divinylether fatty acids contain a fatty acid chemically combined with a doubly unsaturated carbon chain linked by an oxygen atom (ether). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acid hydroperoxides generated by plant lipoxygenases from linoleic and linolenic acids are known to serve as substrates for a divinyl ether synthase which produces divinyl ether fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human blood, the total furan fatty acid content is about 50 ng/ml. (wikipedia.org)
  • Years later, other analysis methods showed that the furan fatty acid 9,12-epoxyoctadeca-9,11-dienoic acid was in fact not contained in the oil of Exocarpus cupressiformis as described by Morris. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997). "The fatty acid composition of a Vibrio alginolyticus associated with the alga Cladophora coelothrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though phospholipids occur in many different life forms, the fatty acid side chains between differing life forms can be quite unique. (wikipedia.org)
  • Omega-3 carboxylic acids was approved by the US FDA in May 2014 and was the third prescription form of an omega-3 product approved in the United States but the first in free fatty acid form. (wikipedia.org)
  • stearic acid
  • For instance, lauric acid (C12:0) and myristic acid (C14:0), have a greater total cholesterol raising effect than palmitic acid (C16:0), whereas stearic acid (C18:0) has a neutral effect on the concentration of total serum cholesterol, including no apparent impact on either LDL or HDL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • metabolic
  • The bicarbonate is derived from metabolic carbon dioxide which is enzymatically converted to carbonic acid in the renal tubular cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • So there are two main forces at work on a daily basis that can disrupt the pH of your body fluids - these forces are the acid or alkaline-forming effects of foods and liquids that you ingest, and the acids that you generate through regular metabolic activities. (drbenkim.com)
  • Ocaliva is an agonist of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor expressed in the liver and intestine and a key regulator of bile acid, inflammatory, fibrotic and metabolic pathways. (globenewswire.com)
  • Urofuran fatty acids are metabolic products of furan fatty acids and can be detected, for example, in human urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Per day, a person separates between 0.5 and 3 mg of urofuran acids - the metabolic product of the furans acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many amino acids, such as ornithine, are metabolic intermediates produced biosynthetically, but not incorporated translationally into proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • atoms
  • Interestingly, although alcohols and amines can be Brønsted-Lowry acids, they can also function as Lewis bases due to the lone pairs of electrons on their oxygen and nitrogen atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most naturally occurring fatty acids have an unbranched chain of an even number of carbon atoms, from 4 to 28. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids, each double bond has three n carbon atoms after it, for some n , and all are cis bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In organic chemistry, the chloroacetic acids (systematic name chloroethanoic acids) are three related chlorocarbon carboxylic acids: Chloroacetic acid (chloroethanoic acid), CH2ClCOOH Dichloroacetic acid (dichloroethanoic acid), CHCl2COOH Trichloroacetic acid (trichloroethanoic acid), CCl3COOH As the number of chlorine atoms increases, the electronegativity of that end of the molecule increases, and the molecule adopts a progressively more ionic character: its density, boiling point and acidity all increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each consists of a salicylic acid substituted with an alkyl chain that has 15 or 17 carbon atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the same manner, in dichloroacetic acid two chlorine atoms would take the place of two hydrogen atoms (CHCl2CO2H). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some others (alkyl-phenyl)-alkanoic acids) are formed when linolenic acid is warmed at 260-270 °C. Several forms with 16, 18 and 20 carbon atoms were identified in archaeological pottery vessels and were presumed to have been generated during heating triunsaturated fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • trans-fatty
  • Hydrogenated oils are highly refined by industrial processes, and contain toxic by-products and trans-fatty acids. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many health professionals, including those at the World Heath Organization, have protested against the use of hydrogenated oils in food and the consumption of trans-fatty acids. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Health conditions linked to the consumption of trans-fatty acids and hydrogenated oils include cancer, heart disease, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity , immune system disorders, decreased sperm counts, and infant development problems. (encyclopedia.com)
  • acidity
  • An acid-base imbalance is known as acidaemia when the acidity is high, or alkalaemia when the acidity is low. (wikipedia.org)
  • The measure of the amount of acidity in wine is known as the "titratable acidity" or "total acidity", which refers to the test that yields the total of all acids present, while strength of acidity is measured according to pH, with most wines having a pH between 2.9 and 3.9. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • During a systematic study of the lipids from seeds of the plant Araceae, the presence of 13-phenyltridecanoic acid as a major component (5-16% of total fatty acids)was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, an exhaustive study of 17 genus of the subfamily Aroideae of Araceae revealed the presence of three major acids, 11-phenylundecanoic acid, 13-phenyltridecanoic acid and 15-phenylpentadecanoic acid in seed lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • This is achieved by changes in the rate and depth of breathing (i.e. by hyperventilation or hypoventilation ), which blows off or retains carbon dioxide (and thus carbonic acid) in the blood plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, by manipulating firstly the concentration of the weak acid, and secondly that of its conjugate base, the pH of the extracellular fluid (ECF) can be adjusted very accurately to the correct value. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, in a monohaloacetic acid, a single halogen would replace a hydrogen atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, it can be stated that all odd carbon chain ω-phenylalkanoic acids from C1 through C23 have been found in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, a prenylated benzoic acid acid derivative, crassinervic acid, has been isolated from Piper crassinervium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus a β amino acid has the amine group bonded to the second carbon away, and a γ amino acid has it on the third. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, an Arrhenius acid can also be described as a substance that increases the concentration of hydronium ions when added to water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, an Arrhenius acid could also be said to be one that decreases hydroxide concentration, while an Arrhenius base increases it. (wikipedia.org)
  • citric acid
  • Even neutral salts however, tend to be significantly toxic, because the ions interfere in biological processes (such as the citric acid cycle) that normally process plain acetate ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with malic acid, and to a lesser extent citric acid, tartaric is one of the fixed acids found in wine grapes. (wikipedia.org)
  • conjugate base
  • This is because they operate by making changes to the buffers, each of which consists of two components: a weak acid and its conjugate base . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the ratio concentration of the weak acid to its conjugate base that determines the pH of the solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • Similarly an excess of H + ions is partially neutralized by the bicarbonate component of the buffer solution to form carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ), which, because it is a weak acid, remains largely in the undissociated form, releasing far fewer H + ions into the solution than the original strong acid would have done. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydronium ions are acids according to all three definitions. (wikipedia.org)
  • An Arrhenius acid is a substance that, when added to water, increases the concentration of H + ions in the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteinogenic
  • Amino acids that are used to make proteins are referred to as "proteinogenic" amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • In biochemistry, non-coded or non-proteinogenic amino acids are those not naturally encoded or found in the genetic code of any organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the use of only 22 amino acids (21 in eukaryotes) by the translational machinery to assemble proteins (the proteinogenic amino acids), over 140 amino acids are known to occur naturally in proteins and thousands more may occur in nature or be synthesized in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteinogenic amino acids are small subset of this group that possess central carbon atom (α- or 2-) bearing an amino group, a carboxyl group, a side chain and an α-hydrogen levo conformation, with the exception of glycine, which is achiral, and proline, whose amine group is a secondary amine and is consequently frequently referred to as an imino acid for traditional reasons, albeit not an imino. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are two extra proteinogenic amino acids: selenocysteine and pyrrolysine. (wikipedia.org)
  • This amino acid is formed by joining to the ε-amino group of lysine a carboxylated pyrroline ring There are various groups of amino acids: 20 standard amino acids 22 proteinogenic amino acids over 80 amino acids created abiotically in high concentrations about 900 are produced by natural pathways over 118 engineered amino acids have been placed into protein These groups overlap, but are not identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • All 22 proteinogenic amino acids are biosynthesised by organisms and some, but not all, of them also are abiotic (found in prebiotic experiments and meteorites). (wikipedia.org)
  • Post-translational modification of amino-acid residues in proteins leads to the formation of many proteinaceous, but non-proteinogenic, amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, the IUPAC names of many non-proteinogenic α-amino acids start with 2-amino- and end in -ic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • selenocysteine
  • The three additional protein-building amino acids are selenocysteine, pyrrolysine, and N-formylmethionine. (whfoods.org)
  • These non-standard amino acids do not have a dedicated codon, but are added in place of a stop codon when a specific sequence is present, UGA codon and SECIS element for selenocysteine, UAG PYLIS downstream sequence for pyrrolysine. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • You will find information about all of these amino acid functions and benefits in this profile. (whfoods.org)
  • We do not currently rank our WHFoods based on individual or combined amino acid content. (whfoods.org)
  • Carnitine has only recently been noted as an important amino acid (the L- form only) essential to our health. (healthy.net)
  • This amino acid contains a selenol group on its β-carbon Pyrrolysine. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-alanine: an amino acid produced by aspartate 1-decarboxylase and a precursor to coenzyme A and the peptides carnosine and anserine. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Eichbaum claims that a solution of one part anacardic acid to 200,000 parts water to as low as one part in 2,000,000 is lethal to Gram positive bacteria in 15 minutes in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, the even carbon chain ω-phenylalkanoic acids of C10 up to C16 were discovered in halophilic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA) are widely used in microbial ecology as chemotaxonomic markers of bacteria and other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g. 18:3 ω3c) are found in plants, algae and cyanobacteria, but are often not present in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the phospholipids of different groups of bacteria and fungi contain a variety of somewhat unusual fatty acids, they can serve as useful biomarkers for such groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other PUFAs - Eukaryotes Cyclopropane fatty acids (e.g. 19:0 cyclo ω7c) - Gram-negative bacteria Dimethyl acetal (e.g. 16:0 DMA, Hexadecanal dimethyl acetal) - Anaerobic bacteria Early studies of the living soil microbial communities were largely based on attempts at culturing bacteria and fungi of soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Identification is often by high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector or by LC-MS. Alternatively they can be derivatised to make them volatile and therefore suitable for GC-MS. Curcumin can be hydrolyzed (alkaline) to yield two molecules of ferulic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • lactic acid
  • It is worth noting that the IUPAC name is not always the preferred name, for example, lactic acid is a common, and also the preferred, name for what systemic rules call 2-Hydroxypropanoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribonucleic acid
  • Measles (rubeola) is an infectious disease caused by multiplication of a single-strand ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus of the genus Morbillivirus in the upper respiratory tract and conjunctiva. (cochrane.org)
  • trichloroacetic acid
  • Trichloroacetic acid is used for various analytic tests in biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sodium salt of trichloroacetic acid is used as a weedkiller. (wikipedia.org)
  • In water, HAAs are stable, with the five most common being: monochloroacetic acid (MCA) ClCH2COOH dichloroacetic acid (DCA) Cl2CHCOOH trichloroacetic acid (TCA) Cl3CCOOH monobromoacetic acid (MBA) BrCH2COOH dibromoacetic acid (DBA) Br2CHCOOH Collectively, these are referred to as the HAA5. (wikipedia.org)
  • phospholipid
  • The effect of this is that, in restricted environments, such as when fatty acids are part of a phospholipid in a lipid bilayer, or triglycerides in lipid droplets, cis bonds limit the ability of fatty acids to be closely packed, and therefore can affect the melting temperature of the membrane or of the fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) are an essential structural component of all microbial cellular membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • L-carnitine also helps with weight loss, usually improves our exercise capacities (possibly through the oxidation of amino acids), and may possibly enhance our muscle building and endurance. (healthy.net)
  • Instead, it was formed during the sample preparation used by Morries and colleagues for the argentation chromatography by oxidation of hydroxyfatty acids, in a base-catalyzed transesterification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methyl
  • Chebulagic acid also show a protective effect against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) - induce cytotoxicity which mimics the pathological symptom of Parkinson's disease. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Upon the exposure to light, the aroma 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (MND) is formed from furan fatty acids in the reaction with singlet oxygen, which has a hay-like odor and is found, for example, in green tea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methyl phenylalkenoic acids (5 carbon chain) have been described from a terrestrial Streptomycete. (wikipedia.org)
  • systematic
  • The old (pre- systematic ) name muriatic acid has the same origin ( muriatic means "pertaining to brine or salt", hence muriate means hydrochloride ), and this name is still sometimes used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Etheroleic acid has systematic name 12-[1′E-hexenyloxy]-9Z,11Z-dodecadienoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • bases
  • The proper balance between the acids and bases (i.e. the pH) in the ECF is crucial for the normal physiology of the body, and cellular metabolism . (wikipedia.org)
  • Acids form aqueous solutions with a sour taste, can turn blue litmus red, and react with bases and certain metals (like calcium ) to form salts . (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • The second line of defence of the pH of the ECF consists of controlling of the carbonic acid concentration in the ECF. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fish, the concentration of furan fatty acids is particularly high in the liver after hunger periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Less than half of the tartaric acid found in grapes is free standing, with the majority of the concentration present as potassium acid salt. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the vine progresses through the ripening stage, malic acid is metabolized in the process of respiration, and by harvest, its concentration could be as low as 1 to 9 g/l. (wikipedia.org)
  • dietary
  • In any of these forms, fatty acids are both important dietary sources of fuel for animals and they are important structural components for cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • IUPAC
  • Just as ferulic acid is not the proper IUPAC name, the diferulic acids also tend to have trivial names that are more commonly used than the correct IUPAC name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leucine
  • Leucine may help metabolized to produce energy, as can isoleucine and valine, the other branched-chain amino acids during periods of fasting or starvation. (healthy.net)
  • chemical
  • Lewis considered this as a generalization of the Brønsted definition, so that an acid is a chemical species that accepts electron pairs either directly or by releasing protons (H + ) into the solution, which then accept electron pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern definitions are concerned with the fundamental chemical reactions common to all acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroacetic acid is chemical intermediate for production of various pharmaceuticals and insecticides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anacardic acid is the main component of cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL), and finds use in the chemical industry for the production of cardanol, which is used for resins, coatings, and frictional materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was later found to be a mixture rather than one chemical, sometimes the plural anacardic acids is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tartaric acid is, from a winemaking perspective, the most important in wine due to the prominent role it plays in maintaining the chemical stability of the wine and its color and finally in influencing the taste of the finished wine. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • Via the Bucherer reaction, heating periacid with anilinium salts gives the N-phenyl derivative, precursor to Acid Blue 113. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, 13-lipoxygenase-generated hydroperoxides serve as precursor of other divinyl ether fatty acids which are produced in bulbs of garlic or Ranunculus leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • nutrients
  • When you ingest foods and liquids, the end products of digestion and assimilation of nutrients often results in an acid or alkaline-forming effect - the end products are sometimes called acid ash or alkaline ash. (drbenkim.com)
  • No group of nutrients is more challenging to describe than amino acids! (whfoods.org)
  • While some people may take this group for granted and assume that it involves interesting but unnecessary details related to protein, and while others may imagine it as a very specialized area related to body building and physical performance, amino acids are actually spotlight nutrients that all of us would do well to consider when making routine food choices. (whfoods.org)
  • This relationship between amino acids and proteins has been the driving force behind nutritional research on these fascinating nutrients. (whfoods.org)
  • Essential fatty acids are extremely important nutrients for health. (encyclopedia.com)
  • hydrogen chloride
  • In the 17th century, Johann Rudolf Glauber from Karlstadt am Main, Germany used sodium chloride salt and sulfuric acid for the preparation of sodium sulfate in the Mannheim process , releasing hydrogen chloride gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • mixture
  • Aqua regia , a mixture consisting of hydrochloric and nitric acids, prepared by dissolving sal ammoniac in nitric acid, was described in the works of Pseudo-Geber , a 13th-century European alchemist. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting solution is evaporated to give a mixture of ferulic acid moieties that can be separated by column chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
  • aromatic
  • However, you will find recommended food sources for different types of amino acids (including branched chain, sulfur-containing, aromatic, and others) in the Summary of Food Sources section of this article. (whfoods.org)
  • known
  • In the special case of aqueous solutions, proton donors form the hydronium ion H 3 O + and are known as Arrhenius acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids are best-known as the building blocks for protein, and that reputation is well-deserved. (whfoods.org)
  • With carnitine's effect on fatty acids and energy production, especially in the heart and muscles, it is now known as a nutrient that protects us from cardiovascular disease. (healthy.net)
  • Ferulic acid can also form trimers and tetramers, known as triferulic and tetraferulic acids respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • An acid form of urushiol, they also cause an allergic skin rash on contact, known as urushiol-induced contact dermatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carboxy-substituted furan fatty acids are known as urofuran acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Winemakers must compensate for this loss by adding extraneous acid at the winery in a process known as acidification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Short chain ω-phenylalkanoic acids have long been known to occur in natural products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Well known cases are the aluminium trihalides, which are widely viewed as Lewis acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aqueous
  • Aqueous Arrhenius acids have characteristic properties which provide a practical description of an acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • An aqueous solution of an acid has a pH less than 7 and is colloquially also referred to as 'acid' (as in 'dissolved in acid'), while the strict definition refers only to the solute . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most acids encountered in everyday life are aqueous solutions , or can be dissolved in water, so the Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry definitions are the most relevant. (wikipedia.org)