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  • sulfur-conta
  • 5 6 7 8 Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is inherently unstable in free solution. (arvojournals.org)
  • Consistent with this, it has been proposed that sulfhydryl groups of sulfur-containing amino acids can be oxidized a total of three times by three HClO molecules, with the fourth reacting with the α-amino group. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • pH plays a central role in the developmental switch between promastigote and amastigote stages, and amastigotes are metabolically most active when their environment is acidic, although the cytoplasm of the amastigote is regulated at near-neutral pH by an active process of proton extrusion. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The endomembrane system is composed of the different membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm within a eukaryotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • uptake
  • Amastigote uptake systems for glucose, amino acids, nucleosides and polyamines are optimally active at acidic pH. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The rate of L-[3H]cysteine sulfinate uptake shows a biphasic dependence on the concentration of L-cysteine sulfinate, corresponding to a high affinity (27.2 microM) and a low affinity (398 microM) transport system. (nih.gov)
  • Methanolic and aqueous extracts from Valeriana adscendens (Valerianaceae), that previously demonstrated neuroleptic-like properties, were studied for their effects on GABA uptake and amino acid neurotransmitter levels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A new series of arachidonic acid derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the endocannabinoid uptake. (biomedsearch.com)
  • glucose
  • The final result is that the diabetic disease process disrupts this fine balance by either autoimmune or environmental factors, which results in an impaired endocrine system that is unable to assist the body in properly utilizing glucose. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Glucose is the primary fuel for most of your cells and is the preferred energy for the brain and nervous system, the red blood cells and the placenta and fetus. (innerbody.com)
  • rapidly
  • Leishmania promastigotes are rapidly phagocytosed but may survive and transform into non-motile amastigote forms which can persist as intracellular parasites. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Solutions of NAD+ are colorless and stable for about a week at 4 °C and neutral pH, but decompose rapidly in acids or alkalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • While arginine, glutamine and other amino acids are rapidly consumed often very early in fermentation, proline is not consumed by yeast at all during the normal, anaerobic conditions of fermentations. (wikipedia.org)
  • substances
  • Present review paper highlights role of BBB in endothelial transport of various substances into the brain. (hindawi.com)
  • Both diffusion and carrier mediated transport mechanisms which facilitate molecular trafficking through transcellular route to maintain influx and outflux of important nutrients and metabolic substances are elucidated. (hindawi.com)
  • Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • Present review paper aims to emphasize role of important transport systems with their recent advancements in CNS protection mainly for providing a rapid clinical aid to patients. (hindawi.com)
  • This review also suggests requirement of new well-designed therapeutic strategies mainly potential techniques, appropriate drug formulations, and new transport systems for quick, easy, and safe delivery of drugs across blood brain barrier to save the life of tumor and virus infected patients. (hindawi.com)
  • GABA
  • The Glu:GABA antiporter GadC ( 3 , 4 ) and the Arg:Agm antiporter AdiC ( 5 , 6 ) are at the center of the systems. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we explore why TaALMT1 activation leads to a negative correlation between malate efflux and endogenous GABA concentrations ([GABA] i ) in both wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) root tips and in heterologous expression systems. (plantcell.org)
  • GABA and malate appear to interact with ALMTs in a complex manner to regulate each other's transport, suggestive of a role for ALMTs in communicating metabolic status. (plantcell.org)
  • dopamine
  • Long-term amphetamine exposure at sufficiently high doses in some animal species is known to produce abnormal dopamine system development or nerve damage, but, in humans with ADHD, pharmaceutical amphetamines appear to improve brain development and nerve growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • stomach
  • They contain an extensive secretory network (called canaliculi) from which the HCl is secreted by active transport into the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granules
  • Elemental reduced Se 0 is formed after incubation in Se(IV) containing cultures under aerobic conditions and intracellular Se 0 granules can be verified using TEM and EDX. (helsinki.fi)
  • AdiC
  • The latter process is mediated by the Arg:Agm antiporter AdiC, which is activated in response to acidic pH and remains fully active at pH 6.0 and below. (nih.gov)
  • Despite our knowledge of structural information, the molecular mechanism by which AdiC senses acidic pH remains completely unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Relying on alanine-scanning mutagenesis and an in vitro proteoliposome-based transport assay, we have identified Tyr74 as a critical pH sensor in AdiC. (nih.gov)
  • The AdiC variant Y74A exhibited robust transport activity at all pH values examined while maintaining stringent substrate specificity for Arg:Agm. (nih.gov)
  • Identification of Tyr74 as a critical pH sensor in the amino acid antiporter AdiC. (nih.gov)
  • A ) The AdiC variant Y74A exhibits pH-independent substrate transport. (nih.gov)
  • The initial rates of transport are plotted against five pH values for both WT AdiC and the Y74A variant. (nih.gov)
  • Only WT AdiC, and not the Y74A variant, exhibited pH-dependent transport activity. (nih.gov)
  • B ) The maximal rates of transport by AdiC Y74A are similar at pH 7.5 and pH 6.0. (nih.gov)
  • AdiC couples the influx of Arg with the efflux of Agm, resulting in net expulsion of one proton for each transport cycle ( 5 , 14 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Structure of AdiC, an amino acid antiporter of the APC superfamily. (sciencemag.org)
  • immune system
  • Phagocytes are an essential component of the host's innate immune system with various antimicrobial defense mechanisms to clear pathogens by oxidative burst, acidificiation of phagosomes, and fusion of the phagosome and lysosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The smooth LPS also inhibits host cell apoptosis by O-polysaccharides through a TNF-alpha-independent mechanism, which allows for B. suis to avoid the activation of the host immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also allow our natural defenses, including the host immune system, to eliminate the invading microorganisms. (asm.org)
  • The plasma that filters through the capillaries into the interstitial fluid does not contain red blood cells or platelets as they are too large to pass through but can contain some white blood cells to help the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is part of the adaptive immune system, but it links to the innate response by recruiting macrophages to phagocytose pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jawed vertebrates have an adaptive immune system, based largely on white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arthropods, using hemolymph, have hemocytes as part of their immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • proton
  • Studies indicate that the amino acid residue His419, located on the domain between TMD X and XI of rat VMAT1, plays a role in energy coupling to the amine transport by assisting the first proton-dependent conformational change. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Publications] Wakakura M et al: 'Direct effect of DL-2-aminoadipic acid mediated by calcium ion cultured Muller cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Blood brain barrier (BBB) is a vasculature of the central nervous system (CNS) that is formed by capillary endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • These are quite different from other capillaries found in the body as their endothelial wall possesses tight junctions which obstruct transport between cells. (hindawi.com)
  • B. suis is a Gram-negative, facultative, intracellular coccobacillus, capable of growing and reproducing inside of host cells, specifically phagocytic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first proposal that the membranes within cells form a single system that exchanges material between its components was by Morré and Mollenhauer in 1974. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 11390805 Endothelial cells exposed to inductive central nervous system factors differentiate into a blood-brain barrier phenotype. (jove.com)
  • The open ring form is inactive and it must therefore be closed to inhibit topo I. The closed form is favored in acidic condition, as it is in many cancer cells microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
  • VMAT2 favors expression in a variety of monoaminergic cells of the CNS such as the brain, sympathetic nervous system, mast cells, and cells containing histamine in the gut. (wikipedia.org)