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  • beta-oxidation
  • In biochemistry and metabolism, beta-oxidation is the catabolic process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the cytosol in prokaryotes and in the mitochondria in eukaryotes to generate acetyl-CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle, and NADH and FADH2, which are co-enzymes used in the electron transport chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the fatty acid is inside the mitochondrial matrix, beta-oxidation occurs by cleaving two carbons every cycle to form acetyl-CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (also called thiolase I) has a broad chain-length specificity for its substrates and is involved in degradative pathways such as fatty acid beta-oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • Once inside the mitochondria, each cycle of β-oxidation, liberating a two carbon unit (acetyl-CoA), occurs in a sequence of four reactions: This process continues until the entire chain is cleaved into acetyl CoA units. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactions
  • In the first step of both the degradative and biosynthetic reactions, the nucleophilic Cys89 (or its equivalent) attacks the acyl-CoA (or 3-ketoacyl-CoA) substrate,leading to the formation of a covalent acyl-CoA intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphopantetheine
  • The growing fatty acid chain is carried between these active sites while attached covalently to the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of an acyl carrier protein (ACP), and is released by the action of a thioesterase (TE) upon reaching a carbon chain length of 16 (palmitic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thiolase
  • In eukaryotes, there are two forms of 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase: one located in the mitochondrion and the other in peroxisomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalytic
  • This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities and an acyl carrier protein. (uniprot.org)
  • Although there is substantial structural homology among all bacterial FabH enzymes determined thus far, with two channels for binding of acyl-CoA and malonyl-ACP substrates and a conserved catalytic triad (C122, H258, N289 in mtFabH), mtFabH contains residues along the acyl-CoA binding channel that preferentially select for longer-chain substrates peaking with lauroyl-CoA (C12). (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the active site is buried except for a 16 Å CoA-binding tunnel that connects the catalytic surface to the outer surrounding milieu. (wikipedia.org)
  • pantothenic
  • Animals require pantothenic acid to synthesize coenzyme-A (CoA), as well as to synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. (drugbank.ca)
  • Pantothenic acid in the form of CoA is also required for acylation and acetylation, which, for example, are involved in signal transduction and enzyme activation and deactivation, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • It was the aim of this study to elucidate the organization of its CoA-derived pathways and to use the genomic information of X. dendrorhous for a phylogenomic investigation of the Basidiomycota. (biomedcentral.com)
  • acid
  • The fatty acid synthetic pathway is the principal route for the production of membrane phospholipid acyl chains in bacterial and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The peptide sequence is: Ac-Aib-Pro-Aib-Ala-Aib-Ala-Gln-Aib-Val-Aib-Gly-Leu-Aib-Pro-Val-Aib-Aib-Glu-Gln-Phl (Ac = acetyl, Phl = phenylalaninol, Aib = 2-Aminoisobutyric acid) In cell membranes, it forms voltage-dependent ion channels by aggregation of four to six molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process continues until all of the carbons in the fatty acid are turned into acetyl CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidation
  • Fats are catabolized through the beta-oxidation process, which involves several enzymes that break down long-chain fats to medium-chain fats, medium-chain fats to short-chain fats, and short-chain fats to ketone bodies and acetyl-CoA. (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • Once inside the mitochondria, each cycle of β-oxidation, liberating a two carbon unit (acetyl-CoA), occurs in a sequence of four reactions: This process continues until the entire chain is cleaved into acetyl CoA units. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The peptide sequence is: Ac-Aib-Pro-Aib-Ala-Aib-Ala-Gln-Aib-Val-Aib-Gly-Leu-Aib-Pro-Val-Aib-Aib-Glu-Gln-Phl (Ac = acetyl, Phl = phenylalaninol, Aib = 2-Aminoisobutyric acid) In cell membranes, it forms voltage-dependent ion channels by aggregation of four to six molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carnitine
  • Be that acyl-carnitine or acyl-CoA, be that at the redCoQ-complex III docking site or elsewhere, be that via free radicals or not, elevated free fatty acids are a precursor for a molecule which generates insulin resistance. (blogspot.com)
  • Acyl-carnitine is shuttled inside by a carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase, as a carnitine is shuttled outside. (wikipedia.org)
  • The liberated carnitine is shuttled back to the cytosol, as an acyl-carnitine is shuttled into the matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalysis
  • The BC and CT sites are approximately 55 Å apart, indicative of the entire BCCP domain translocating during catalysis of the carboxylation of propionyl-CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1979, inhibition by phenylglyoxal determined that a phosphate group from either propionyl-CoA or ATP reacts with an essential arginine residue in the active site during catalysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • chain
  • Propionyl CoA is the end product of metabolism of odd-chain fatty acids, and is also a metabolite of most methyl-branched fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electron transfer from electron carriers to the electron transport chain in oxidative phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there is substantial structural homology among all bacterial FabH enzymes determined thus far, with two channels for binding of acyl-CoA and malonyl-ACP substrates and a conserved catalytic triad (C122, H258, N289 in mtFabH), mtFabH contains residues along the acyl-CoA binding channel that preferentially select for longer-chain substrates peaking with lauroyl-CoA (C12). (wikipedia.org)
  • acetate
  • Here, acetyltransferase transfers the acetate group from acetyl-CoA onto the SH group of the 4′-phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of ACP, which had been attached during activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • The latter is converted by methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (one of a very few Vitamin B12-dependent enzymes) to give succinyl-CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • The carboxybiotin translocates to the carboxytransferase (CT) active site, where the carboxyl group is transferred to acetyl-CoA. (wikipedia.org)