• Currently, there are no commercial preventative measures or therapies for SEB exposure based on passive (antibodies) or active (vaccines) immunotherapy, despite the fact that multiple attempts to develop therapies have met with various degrees of success. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Benefits and risks are associated with using all immunobiologics (i.e., an antigenic substance or antibody-containing preparation). (cdc.gov)
  • An initial step in the bacterial infection mechanism is identification of and adherence to host tissue. (diva-portal.org)
  • are among the most common infectious complications in patients with HIV infection, occurring with increased frequency at all CD4 T lymphocyte cell (CD4) counts, 1 and some data suggest that bacterial pneumonia may occur with increased severity in this population. (nih.gov)
  • Bacterial pneumonia may be the first manifestation of underlying HIV infection and can occur at any stage of HIV disease and at any CD4 count. (nih.gov)
  • Coating of pneumococci with anticapsular polysaccharide antibody unmasked the bacterial phosphorylcholine ligand, allowing for increased adherence mediated by binding to the platelet activating factor receptor on epithelial cells. (pnas.org)
  • In this report, we used human anti-PnPS IgA1 to show that IgA1 protease modifies IgA1 antibody so that it promotes rather than inhibits pneumococcal adherence to epithelial cells in a model of colonization. (pnas.org)
  • The action of AID yielded the same specific mutational hot and cold spots along DNA strands that are observed in human antibody proteins," explained Myron F. Goodman, a professor of molecular biology and chemistry in USC's College of Letters, Arts & Sciences and senior author of the Nature paper. (innovations-report.com)
  • Along the gut, the strategy suffers, however, from the difficulty to obtain sufficient amounts of antibodies with the appropriate specificity and molecular structure for mucosal delivery. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, recent studies using molecular techniques suggest bacterial communities in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and meconium from healthy pregnancies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on this analysis, we argue that the evidence in support of the "in utero colonization hypothesis" is extremely weak as it is founded almost entirely on studies that (i) used molecular approaches with an insufficient detection limit to study "low-biomass" microbial populations, (ii) lacked appropriate controls for contamination, and (iii) failed to provide evidence of bacterial viability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In one study, the incidence of bacterial pneumonia declined from 22.7 episodes per 100 person-years in the era before combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) to 9.1 episodes per 100 person-years by 1997. (nih.gov)
  • Physiologically, at the antibody level, the protection of gastrointestinal mucosal surfaces against enteropathogens is principally mediated by secretory IgA and secretory IgM. (frontiersin.org)
  • The adherence-promoting properties of cleaved antibodies correlated with the cationic characteristics of their variable segments, suggesting that bound Fab fragments may neutralize the inhibitory effect of negatively charged capsules on adhesive interaction with host cells. (pnas.org)
  • When higher concentrations of GAS accumulate (eg, deep-seeded infections), the effectiveness of beta-lactam antibiotics decreases because the bacterial growth slows (stationary phase). (medscape.com)
  • Distinct differences were observed in some bacterial populations in UC biopsies, which were generally reflected in antibody responses towards these organisms. (bmj.com)
  • We used force measuring optical tweezers to characterize the force-extension responses of fimbriae in the absence and presence of antibodies. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, one factor that can limit the applicability of this technology is the ability to express large amounts of active protein. (nih.gov)
  • High-resolution imaging was employed to explore the structural features of fimbriae as well as monitoring the antibody-fimbriae interactions. (diva-portal.org)
  • The contribution of IgA to host defense is thought to result from its ability to block colonization-initiating adhesive interactions of microbes with host tissues ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • B cell - An antibody-making lymphocyte (white blood cell) originating in the bone marrow. (mssociety.ca)
  • Bacterial cell structure Quellung reaction, a method to visualize capsule under a microscope Peterson, Johnny W. (1996). (wikipedia.org)
  • We suggest further elucidation of how antibodies disrupt fimbrial mechanics, providing insights for the development of antibody-based therapeutics. (diva-portal.org)
  • The aims of this thesis are: to provide insight into the structural and biomechanical differences of fimbriae expressed by enterotoxigenic and uropathogenic Escherichia coli, and to investigate how fimbrial mechanics are affected in the presence of anti-fimbrial antibodies. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition, our findings provide evidence for a novel function of bacterial IgA1 proteases. (pnas.org)
  • This chapter will focus on the diagnosis, prevention, and management of bacterial pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. (nih.gov)