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  • fibroblasts
  • Effects of treatment with serum-free medium and 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OH) on the cell cycle of simian virus 40-transformed 3T3 fibroblasts, designated SV-3T3 cells, were studied and compared with simultaneous effects on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA reductase and incorporation of [ 3 H]mevalonic acid into cholesterol, Coenzyme Q, and dolichol. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Both A431 and normal human fibroblasts are valuable positive controls for antibodies to proteins expressed in these cells. (exalpha.com)
  • Swiss
  • Soluble extracts prepared from quiescent Swiss mouse 3T3 cells that had been briefly exposed to various mitogens exhibited a 2- to 3-fold elevation in phosphorylating activities toward ribosomal protein S6 and a synthetic peptide, Arg-Arg-Leu-Ser-Ser-Leu-Arg-Ala (RRLSSLRA), patterned after a phosphorylation site sequence from S6. (semanticscholar.org)
  • proliferation
  • The cultured tumor cells showed loss of both postconfluence inhibition of proliferation and anchorage dependence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In order to analyze whether some of the products in the mevalonic acid biosynthetic pathway may be of importance in the control of G 1 traverse and cell proliferation of SV-3T3 cells, cholesterol, Coenzyme Q, and dolichol were added as supplements to cells treated with 25-OH. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Indeed, since the overall length of the cell cycle appears to depend in large part on the length of the G 1 phase, it is likely that this cell cycle period must be compressed as much as possible for rapid proliferation, potentially requiring the transfer of activities present in the G 1 phase of quiescent cells to other cell cycle periods when they continuously cycle ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • proteins
  • Nick Melosh describes a method for sampling RNA and proteins from cells using nanostraws. (pnas.org)
  • The TPA-mediated association (activation) of protein kinase C to the nuclear and cytoskeletal fractions with NIH 3T3 cells is further supported by the enhanced phosphorylation of specific endogenous proteins noted when purified nuclei and cytoskeletal preparations are incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, passage through G 1 phase in quiescent and proliferating cells exhibits several important molecular differences, including expression of the cyclin-inhibitory protein p27 kip1 ( 3 ), Cdc6 ( 42 ), and Fos and related proteins ( 14 ), and formation of a complex between E2F and the retinoblastoma protein (Rb)-related p130 ( 19 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell Iysate displays proteins expressed in bovine kidney and PC12 (rat phaeochromocytoma) cell Iysate can be expected to mirror the protein expression of cells and tissues of neuroectodermal origin. (exalpha.com)
  • Likewise, Jurkat cells express the proteins unique to human T-cells. (exalpha.com)
  • reactive oxygen
  • Cell viability, cell apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, the level of glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were detected. (mdpi.com)
  • quiescent cells
  • In contrast, while ellipticine and its derivatives caused identical effects in cells recovering from serum starvation, BD-40 and BR-1376 did not block cells in G 2 phase and did not prevent the completion of the first division round occurring after serum addition to quiescent cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, in quiescent cells the restriction point is identical to the G 1 arrest point induced by other conditions, including protein synthesis inhibitors and amino acid deprivation ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • While results obtained with quiescent cells are important, there is reason to believe the situation might be different for cells continuously progressing through the cell cycle. (asm.org)
  • line
  • A431, a human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, and the EGF-stimulated A431 Iysates are used as negative and positive controls, respectively, when studying the phosphorylation cascade initiated by ligand binding to receptor tyrosine kinases. (exalpha.com)
  • 3t3 cells are an immortal cell line widely used in biological research. (sciencephoto.com)
  • protein
  • Treatment of intact NIH 3T3 cells with 12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) causes a rapid redistribution (stabilization) of protein kinase C to the particulate fraction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An apparently pure nuclear fraction prepared from NIH 3T3 cells was found to contain 25-30% of the total membrane-associated protein kinase C activity when isolated in the presence of Ca 2+ . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nuclei purified from untreated human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells contain higher amounts of chelator-stable, detergent-extractable protein kinase C activity compared with control NIH 3T3 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, TPA treatment of HL-60 cells does not enhance the amount of protein kinase C found tightly associated with the nuclear fraction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Evidence for GO induced autophagy includes increased levels of isoform B-II microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), aggregation of green fluorescence protein-tagged LC3, and increased numbers of autophagic vacuoles in cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • mammalian
  • One of the earliest events in the response of mammalian cells to mitogens is activation of Na+/H+ exchange, which increases intracellular pH (pHin) in the absence of HCO3- or at external pH values below 7.2. (pnas.org)
  • Identification of genes that function to protect cells from radiation damage is an essential step in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which mammalian cells cope with ionizing radiation. (sciencemag.org)
  • recipient
  • To extend these studies to cycling cells, a time-lapse approach was used to determine the approximate cell cycle position of individual cells in an asynchronous culture at the time of inhibitor treatment and then to determine the effects of the inhibitor upon recipient cells. (asm.org)
  • genes
  • Introduction: Cancer cells are hallmarked by global DNA hypomethylation and regional hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inhibition of MBD2 attenuates tumorigenesis, metastasis, and reverses the hypomethylation of metastatic genes in cell culture and in vivo. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Genes involved in tumorgenesis, bone degradation, or with no known function that were induced in both MBD2 and HA-Ras expressing cell lines were chosen for further study. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Knocking down selected candidate genes' mRNA in MBD2 overexpressing NIH-3T3 cells resulted in attenuated tumorigenesis while knocking down MBD2 in HA-RAS cells significantly reduced these genes' expression levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • physiological
  • Moreover, the effect is not specifically a function of the presence of the viral genome, but is a reflection of the overall growth rate and physiological state of the cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • serum
  • We also show that these cells are serum-independent for growth and that they glycolyze much more rapidly than phenotypically normal cells. (pnas.org)
  • When the cells were exposed to serum-free medium, there was no depression of activity of HMG CoA reductase, and the rate of [ 3 H]mevalonic acid incorporated into dolichol and cholesterol was not affected in any appreciable degree. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A similar decrease in Coenzyme Q synthesis was also achieved by treating the cells with cholesterol-poor serum. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Considered together with the fact that the activity of HMG CoA reductase and incorporation of mevalonic acid into dolichol were unaffected following serum-free treatment, the results suggest that maintenance of a certain level of de novo synthesis of dolichol may contribute to the capability of SV-3T3 cells to proliferate in serum-free medium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This lack of effect was not related to an impaired drug uptake by cells recovering from serum starvation or by a dramatic change in drug distribution inside the cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • survival
  • Autophagy usually serves as a survival mechanism in response to stress conditions, but excessive induction of autophagy results in cell death. (biomedsearch.com)
  • whereas
  • The effect of 25-OH on the cell cycle traverse was correlated to a substantial decrease in the activity of HMG CoA reductase, whereas there was no change in the rate of [ 3 H]mevalonic acid incorporated into cholesterol, Coenzyme Q, and dolichol. (aacrjournals.org)
  • molecular
  • Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802. (asm.org)
  • Control
  • The current report shows that these transfected cells do maintain a higher pHin than control cells in the presence of HCO3-, supporting the possibility that elevated pHin is a proliferative trigger in situ. (pnas.org)
  • Several assays revealed that the MBD2 cell lines, but not the mutant nor the control cell lines, were transformed and highly invasive in cell culture. (aacrjournals.org)
  • we found that the IRS-1 overexpressing cells grow more rapidly than control cells do. (biomedsearch.com)
  • situ
  • Using DNAs from a panel of Chinese hamster-mouse somatic cell hybrids together with in situ hybridization protocols for gene mapping studies, we have found that these DM-associated, amplified DNA sequences originate from mouse chromosome 10, region C1-C3. (springer.com)
  • growth
  • low dosages of GO promoted cell growth, while high doses induced cell death. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Both drug series were found to stop cell growth and block cells in G 2 phase in exponentially growing cultures and cultures released from a thymidine double block. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cell cycle requirements for peptide growth factors have been demonstrated in cells rendered quiescent by growth factor deprivation ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • At a certain point following stimulation to reenter the cell cycle, the continued presence of a variety of growth factors became unnecessary for continuation through G 1 phase and the initiation of DNA synthesis ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • restriction
  • The restriction point is thus defined as the last point at which positive proliferative signals are required for completion of the cell cycle. (asm.org)
  • In addition, the time required between the restriction point and initiation of S phase (near 4 h in the case of the cells used in this study) is nearly as long as the entire G 1 phase when these cells are actively cycling. (asm.org)
  • biology
  • To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, we've highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. (thermofisher.com)
  • treatment
  • Cycloheximide treatment, like anti-cyclin D1 microinjection, was inhibitory throughout G 1 phase (which lasts a total of 4 to 5 h in these cells). (asm.org)
  • cycle
  • Novel techniques were used to determine when in the cell cycle of proliferating NIH 3T3 cells cellular Ras and cyclin D1 are required. (asm.org)
  • Kinetic analysis and a novel dual-labeling technique were used to confirm the differences in cell cycle requirements for Ras, cyclin D1, and cycloheximide. (asm.org)