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  • acetoacetyl
  • These two different types of thiolase are found both in eukaryotes and in prokaryotes: acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (EC:2.3.1.9) and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (EC:2.3.1.16). (wikipedia.org)
  • Two different types of thiolase are found both in eukaryotes and in prokaryotes: acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (EC 2.3.1.9) and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (EC 2.3.1.16). (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthesis
  • A number of proteins were found to be induced in R. eutropha by using 1D-PAGE and nano-liquid chromatography tandem MS/MS. With the proteins being up-regulated, a dramatic change occurred in the induction of PHA metabolism, including fatty acid biosynthesis for acetate, β-oxidation for propionate and both for levulinic acid. (ijbs.com)
  • The organic acids induced several proteins involved in amino acid biosynthesis, purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis, and cofactor biosynthesis in R. eutropha , but the regulations had a great variation. (ijbs.com)
  • The information on proteins involved in different metabolic pathways, particularly the regulation of the enzymes in cells' responses to different organic acids, is invaluable to biosynthesis of PHA biopolymers. (ijbs.com)
  • 3-Ketoacyl-CoA synthase I in Arabidopsis thaliana is involved in very long chain fatty acid synthesis, which plays a role in wax biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • In synthase II, each subunit consists of a five-stranded beta pleated sheet surrounded by multiple alpha helices, shown in the image below. (wikipedia.org)
  • UniProt
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • Reactions
  • In the first step of both the degradative and biosynthetic reactions, the nucleophilic Cys89 (or its equivalent) attacks the acyl-CoA (or 3-ketoacyl-CoA) substrate,leading to the formation of a covalent acyl-CoA intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The chromosome encoded 5,674 putative protein-coding sequences, including many candidate genes for virulence and multidrug resistance as well as secondary metabolism. (pnas.org)
  • The chromosome of N. farcinica , unlike that of Streptomyces ( 13 , 14 ), has a circular topology ( Fig. 1 ) and encodes 53 tRNA genes, three copies of ribosomal RNA operons, and 5,674 predicted protein-coding sequences. (pnas.org)
  • Type II FASs are dissociated systems, meaning the component enzymes are independent proteins encoded by a series of separate genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • In this study, Ralstonia eutropha was used to elucidate the protein regulations when the bacterial cells pre-cultivated on glucose were exposed to three representative short chain organic acids, acetic, propionic and levulinic acids. (ijbs.com)
  • The application of computational methods to explore the diversity and structure of bacterial fatty acid synthase. (genome.jp)
  • Putative
  • Putative protein-coding sequences were predicted by the glimmer program and then were manually confirmed and corrected by using the blastp ( 10 ) and frameplot programs ( 11 ), optimized to handle genomic-size sequences. (pnas.org)
  • metabolism
  • The research compared and examined the proteins that might participate in PHA metabolism, primary metabolism, and cell's defense systems. (ijbs.com)
  • covalently
  • The growing fatty acid chain is carried between these active sites while attached covalently to the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of an acyl carrier protein (ACP), and is released by the action of a thioesterase (TE) upon reaching a carbon chain length of 16 (palmitic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • A Type I fatty acid synthase system is also found in the CMN group of bacteria (corynebacteria, mycobacteria, and nocardia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, palmitic acid, which is created by the beta-ketoacyl-synthases on type I FAS, is used in a number of biological capacities. (wikipedia.org)
  • reveal
  • The responses of the cells to the organic acids, such as regulation of proteins, can reveal the metabolic activities and mechanisms in detoxification and utilization of different organic acids by the microbial cells [ 10 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • carbon
  • Both are efficient up to acyl-ACPs with a 14 carbon chain, at which point synthase II is the more efficient choice for further carbon additions. (wikipedia.org)
  • chain
  • Synthases I and II are capable of producing long-chain acyl-ACPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (also called thiolase I) has a broad chain-length specificity for its substrates and is involved in degradative pathways such as fatty acid beta-oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • In the post-genomic era, proteomic studies analyzing the protein complement of a genome in a particular organism at any given time, have gained real significance. (usf.edu)
  • This, along with its ability to reduce perchlorate (a teratogenic contaminant introduced into the environment by man) and inquiry into its use in biocells [ 3 ] has led to interest in using this organism for bioremediation and energy production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main function of beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase is to produce fatty acids of various lengths for use by the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Annotation
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • Annotation described in this paper also reveals evidence for several metabolic pathways that have yet to be observed experimentally, including a sulphur oxidation ( sox FCDYZAXB) gene cluster, Calvin cycle enzymes, and proteins involved in nitrogen fixation in other species (including RubisCo, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, and nif gene families, respectively). (biomedcentral.com)
  • substrate
  • The image below reveals how CoA fits in the active site as a substrate of synthase III. (wikipedia.org)
  • note that synthases in plants have been documented to have a range of substrate specificities. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first step of both the degradative and biosynthetic reactions, the nucleophilic Cys89 (or its equivalent) attacks the acyl-CoA (or 3-ketoacyl-CoA) substrate,leading to the formation of a covalent acyl-CoA intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycolysis
  • We found cytoplasmic proteins involved in glycolysis to be highly expressed in post-exponential phase while proteins involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle to be prevalent in stationary phase. (usf.edu)
  • Biosynthesis
  • Geiger's group discovered the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway, which constitutes a major route for phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) formation in bacteria as well as the biosynthesis pathway for ornithine-containing lipids, which are widespread bioactive lipids encountered in bacterial membranes. (unam.mx)
  • strains
  • We found agr-regulated proteins are generally upregulated in CA-MRSA strains USA300 and USA400 and surface-associated proteins to be upregulated in HA-MRSA strains USA100 and USA200. (usf.edu)
  • sequence
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • They contain discrete functional domains responsible for specific catalytic activities of the reaction sequence, either on a single polypeptide chain or on two different multifunctional proteins. (wikipedia.org)