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  • substrates of this enzyme
  • In enzymology, a 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3-hydroxyanthranilate + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3-hydroxyanthranilate and O2, whereas its product is 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, an aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.32) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2-aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde + NAD+ + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-aminomuconate + NADH + 2 H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 2-aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are 2-aminomuconate, NADH, and H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • This enzyme utilizes a non-heme Fe and dioxygen to convert 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde (ACMS). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. (drugbank.ca)
  • Catalyzes the oxidative ring opening of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde, which spontaneously cyclizes to quinolinate. (uniprot.org)
  • 3-hydroxyanthranilate + O 2 = 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde. (uniprot.org)
  • In enzymology, an aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.45) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2-amino-3-(3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)but-2-enedioate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-aminomuconate semialdehyde + CO2 Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, 2-amino-3-(3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)but-2-enedioate, and two products, 2-aminomuconate semialdehyde and CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is 2-amino-3-(3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)but-2-enedioate carboxy-lyase (2-aminomuconate-semialdehyde-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • 4-Chlorokynurenine penetrates the blood-brain barrier via the large neutral amino acid transporter 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulatory
  • Recent work has highlighted the therapeutic potential of inhibiting two critical regulatory enzymes in this pathway-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO) and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). (pnas.org)
  • In this article we review evidence supporting opposing roles for IDO-dependent immune regulation-including the generation of regulatory T (Treg) 3 cells ( 4 , 5 )-and the IL-23/Th17 axis in controlling inflammation to specific fungi. (jimmunol.org)
  • semialdehyde
  • Other names in common use include 2-aminomuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 2-hydroxymuconic acid semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, alpha-aminomuconic epsilon-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, alpha-hydroxymuconic epsilon-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamate
  • Glutamate-i was heavily deposited (3-13-fold higher gold particle density than tissue average) in axon terminals forming asymmetric synapses with spines and, occasionally, dendrites. (jneurosci.org)
  • inflammatory
  • In addition, particularly with commensals, elaborate modalities of immune evasion and prolonged stimulation of the host's immune system contribute toward shaping inflammatory and immune mechanisms ( 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It is suspected that this is a result of activation of indoleamine dioxygenases (to be specific, IDO-1 and IDO-2) as well as tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) stimulation by inflammatory cytokines (mainly IFN-gamma, but also IFN-beta and IFN-alpha). (wikipedia.org)
  • https
  • The online version of this article ( https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-018-1366-3 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. (springer.com)
  • include
  • Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure. (drugbank.ca)
  • mechanisms
  • IDO and tryptophan catabolites contribute to this delicate balance in experimental candidiasis and aspergillosis by providing the host with immune mechanisms adequate for protection without necessarily eliminating fungal pathogens or causing an unacceptable level of tissue damage ( 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • known
  • Cinnavalininate, also known as cinnabarinic acid or cinnabarinate, is a member of the class of compounds known as phenoxazines. (hmdb.ca)
  • Glycine
  • Most of its therapeutic potential is believed to occur via 7-chlorokynurenic acid which inhibits the glycine co-agonist site of NMDA receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • esters
  • Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure. (drugbank.ca)
  • Leucine
  • 3-hy·droxy·iso·va·ler·ic ac·id/ ( -i″so-vah-ler´ik ) a methylated form of isovaleric acid accumulated and excreted in the urine in some disorders of leucine catabolism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) (OMIM #243500) is caused by a defect in leucine catabolism due to deficiency of isovaleryl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase, leading to the accumulation of free isovaleric acid, 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid , N-isovalerylglycine, and isovalerylcarnitine (C5). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Deficiency of this enzyme results in accumulation of leucine catabolism byproducts, particularly isovaleryl carnitine, isovalerylglycine, 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid , and isovaleric acid itself. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • urine
  • 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria (3MGA) type I (McKusick 250950) is biochemically characterized by increased excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid, 3-methylglutaric acid, and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid in urine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • dehydrogenase
  • Other names in common use include 2-aminomuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 2-hydroxymuconic acid semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, alpha-aminomuconic epsilon-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, alpha-hydroxymuconic epsilon-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific
  • Lysoplasmalogenase is specific for the sn- 2-deacylated (lyso) form of plasmalogen and catalyses hydrolytic cleavage of the vinyl ether bond, releasing a fatty aldehyde and sn- glycero-3-phosphocholine or sn- glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Specific dehydrogenation of 3-methylindole and epoxidation of naphthalene by recombinant human CYP2F1 expressed in lymphoblastoid cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is suspected that this is a result of activation of indoleamine dioxygenases (to be specific, IDO-1 and IDO-2) as well as tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) stimulation by inflammatory cytokines (mainly IFN-gamma, but also IFN-beta and IFN-alpha). (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • In addition, the researchers made the discovery that 3-HAA was responsible for AngII-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in the body. (sciencecodex.com)