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  • metabolism
  • The level of catechol metabolism in the RVLM 1) is continuously related to the level of arterial CO2, 2) functions close to its resting level under baseline nonstimulated condition with respect to CO2, and 3) is reversibly modified on changes in capnia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • enzyme
  • In enzymology, a 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate 2,3-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-hydroxy-5-carboxymethylmuconate semialdehyde Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate and O2, whereas its product is 2-hydroxy-5-carboxymethylmuconate semialdehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate:oxygen 2,3-oxidoreductase (decyclizing). (wikipedia.org)
  • Serotonin
  • The effects of fengabine (a novel benzylidene derivative possessing clinically demonstrated antidepressant action) on neurochemical parameters related to norepinephrine, serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons have been investigated in the rat and mouse brain. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Parkinson's
  • We now report that minocycline, a semisynthetic tetracycline, recently shown to have neuroprotective effects in animal models of stroke/ischemic injury and Huntington's disease, prevents nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. (pnas.org)
  • Several neurotoxins induce Parkinson's-like neuropathology in animals, including the neurotoxins 6-hydroxydopamine and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mutations on chromosome 4 can cause Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) is a potential drug target for Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • While selective group II mGlu receptor (mGlu 2/3 ) agonists have reached clinical trials but were unsuccessful, specific mGlu 2 or mGlu 3 receptor targeting still hold great promise. (springer.com)
  • Arthrobacter
  • This product has been synthesized (52% yield) from 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid via aerobic biotransformation using whole cell cultures of Arthrobacter protophormiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterodimers
  • The recent discovery of heterodimers comprising mGlu 2 and mGlu 4 may explain the efficacy of mGlu 4 selective compounds but this remains to be determined. (springer.com)
  • neurons
  • In vitro studies using primary cultures of mesencephalic and cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) and/or glia demonstrate that minocycline inhibits both 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + )-mediated iNOS expression and NO-induced neurotoxicity, but MPP + -induced neurotoxicity is inhibited only in the presence of glia. (pnas.org)
  • stimulant
  • The stimulant properties of AFA were discovered serendipitously at Sterling-Winthrop in the midst of research on the antibiotic nalidixic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to behaving as antibiotics, it was found that many derivatives of nalidixic acid have either stimulant or depressant effects on the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite its different mechanism of action, amfonelic acid displays discriminatory substitution with 150% the stimulant potency of dextroamphetamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Although group III mGlu receptors (mGlu 4/6/7/8 ) have attracted less attention, mGlu 4 agonists and PAMs appear to have efficacy across all three symptoms domains in preclinical models. (springer.com)
  • astroglia
  • After parenteral administration, MPTP readily enters the brain and is metabolized by astroglia to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + ) ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Formula
  • A noted type of argiotoxin, the Arg-636, which molecular formula is C29H52N10O6 [3], has a molecular weight of 636.78658 g/mol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, it can be shown that sublethal doses induced marked changes in the pattern of proteins produced by the cell, thus suggesting a possible effect of 4-quinolones on gene transcription in mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Additionally, mGlu 3 appears to play an important role in cognition, may confer neuroprotective effects, and thus is a promising target to alleviate cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. (springer.com)
  • cell
  • In 1988 the biologist G.C. Crumplin wrote, "[AFA] is less active against bacteria than are many other 4-quinolones, but studies in our laboratory on selected mammalian cell lines have shown it to be markedly more toxic to these cells than are the 4-quinolones that are more active antibacterial agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyleneglycol levels in the hypothalamus, septum and spinal cord. (aspetjournals.org)
  • MAO-A appears at roughly 80% of adulthood levels at birth, increasing very slightly after the first 4 years of life, while MAO-B is almost non-detectable in the infant brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • further
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) have both indicated they will not issue approval for pridopidine to be used in human patients on the basis of the MermaiHD and HART trials, and a further, positive phase 3 trial is required for approval. (wikipedia.org)
  • administration
  • We used a mouse model of parkinsonism induced by the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and co-administration of the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 to study the role of PPAR-γ activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • free
  • It also possesses arginine (free NH2) connected to a -NH (CH)3 NH (C ~) 3NH (CH) 5-NH- one through a peptide bond polyamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • OPEN
  • Numerous small seeds are shed through valves (numbering between 3 and 6 per fruit) which open on the top of the fruit. (wikipedia.org)