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  • fetal
  • The births June 9 of Utah Pioneer and July 27 of Idaho Star, two more mules cloned from the same fetal mule skin cell line, added to the success of the University of Idaho-Utah State University project. (innovations-report.com)
  • Under three Presidential Administrations, Dr. Skirboll was the agency's lead on policy issues related to fetal tissue, cloning, and stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Although we cannot completely exclude the possibility that the cells had a parthenogenetic origin, imprinting analyses support a SCNT origin of the derived human ES cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Previous reports have described the generation of bovine ES-like cells ( 4 ) and mouse ES cells from the ICMs of cloned blastocysts ( 5 - 7 ) and the development of cloned human embryos to the 8- to 10-cell stage ( 8 , 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • More important is the potential human health aspects of the cloning project. (innovations-report.com)
  • Dr. Gordon Woods, UI professor of animal and veterinary science, said the work aided understanding of calcium s role in cell signaling and possibly in the progression of human disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • Tests showed intracellular calcium concentrations in horse red blood cells were 2.3 times less than in human red blood cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Richard Griffith Seed (born 1928) is an American physicist and entrepreneur best known for forcing a national debate on human cloning in the late 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • On December 5, 1997, Seed announced that he planned to clone a human being before any federal laws could be enacted to ban the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seed's announcement went against President Clinton's 1997 proposal for a voluntary private moratorium against human cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retired at the time of his announcement to clone the first human, Seed was reported to have dabbled in ill-fated ventures in the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • He claimed at one time to have commitments for $800,000 toward a goal of $2.5 million needed to clone the first human before 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1997, Ritchie and Campbell in collaboration with PPL (Pharmaceutical Proteins Limited) created another sheep named "Polly", created from genetically altered skin cells containing a human gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • He supported the use of SCNT for the production of personalised stem cell therapies and for the study of human diseases and the use of cybrid embryo production to overcome the lack of human eggs available for research. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCNT
  • After continuous proliferation for more than 70 passages, SCNT-hES-1 cells maintained normal karyotypes and were genetically identical to the somatic nuclear donor cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • The first study to review the long-term health outcomes of cloning, the authors found no evidence of late-onset, non-communicable diseases other than some minor examples of osteoarthritis and concluded "We could find no evidence, therefore, of a detrimental long-term effect of cloning by SCNT on the health of aged offspring among our cohort. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Conclusion We provided novel evidence that B cells differentiated within synovial ELS in the RA joints frequent target deiminated proteins which could be generated during NETosis of RA synovial neutrophils including histones. (bmj.com)
  • melanoma
  • By enumerating with epitope/HLA tetrameric complexes (tHLA) vaccine-elicited T cell precursor frequencies ( Tc-pf ) in melanoma patients exposed to the modified gp100 epitope gp100:209-217 (g209-2M) we observed in most patients that the Tc-pf increased with number of immunizations. (jimmunol.org)
  • The identification of melanoma-associated Ags (MAA) 2 and their T cell epitopes has stimulated interest in the development of active specific vaccination of patients with advanced cancer ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Repeated long-term administration of melanoma Ag gene-derived peptides induced clinical responses associated with minimal evidence of systemic T cell activation ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • endocytic
  • Cells lacking V-ATPase function display impaired acidification of the endosomal compartment and a correlated failure to degrade endocytic cargoes. (biologists.org)
  • blastocyst
  • The hybrid cell is then stimulated to divide by an electric shock, and when it develops into a blastocyst it is implanted in a surrogate mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyrenean
  • The Pyrenean ibex, an impressive mountain goat that lived in the central Pyrenees in Spain, went extinct in 2000. (sciencemag.org)
  • proliferation
  • Foliation of the mouse cerebellum occurs primarily during the first 2 weeks after birth and is accompanied by tremendous proliferation of granule cell precursors (GCPs). (biologists.org)
  • It may be involved in cell proliferation and transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Clathrin coated vesicles enable neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal membranes and across the membranes of other types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • It has been postulated that these donor T cells can be directed at either tumor-associated antigens (5) or minor histocompatibility antigens (6 , 7 , 8) , but the specific antigens that are targets of effective DLI responses in vivo have not been identified. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To the extent that GVHD targets antigens that are also expressed by recipient tumor cells, GVHD can also be responsible for significant GVL activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • receptor
  • According to Axel, the cloning achievement eliminates one potential mechanism and narrows the possible ways in which a cell chooses one of thousands of receptor genes. (innovations-report.com)
  • Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that differentiate from macrophage precursors in response to receptor activator of NF-κB (RANKL). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • All clones tested expressed the RANKL receptor RANK. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Clones capable of forming large TRAP positive multinuclear cells also expressed β 3 integrin and calcitonin receptor mRNAs and were capable of resorbing a mineralized matrix. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mounting evidence, particularly in Drosophila , has pointed to the unexpected involvement of the endosomal system in regulating activation of the Notch receptor in signal-receiving cells. (biologists.org)
  • IL-22 binds to a heterodimeric cell surface receptor composed of IL-10R2 and IL-22R1 subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystallization is possible if the N-linked glycosylation sites are removed in mutants of IL-22 bound with high-affinity cell-surface receptor sIL-22R1. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). (wikipedia.org)
  • It forms cell surface complexes with IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 chains resulting in signal transduction through receptor, IL-10R2. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • IL-22R is expressed on tissue cells, and it is absent on immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-22 along with IL-17 is rapidly produced by splenic LTi-like cells and also produced by Th17 cells and likely plays a role in the coordinated response of both adaptive innate immune systems, autoimmunity and tissue regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • https
  • Crossway, ISBN 9781581342017 https://www.nytimes.com/1998/01/24/us/eccentric-s-hubris-set-off-global-frenzy-over-cloning.html https://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/science/jan-june98/cloning_1-8.html http://www.sciencefriday.com/pages/1998/Jan/hour1_010998.html http://www.cnn.com/TECH/9801/07/cloning.folo/ Merrill, Richard A. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jaenisch
  • Because the cloned animals are normal, our experiment also shows that [some] brain functions do not involve genetic alterations of the neuron s genome," said Jaenisch. (innovations-report.com)
  • Using standard cloning techniques, the researchers in Jaenisch s laboratory then isolated individual neurons, removed nuclei from the tagged cells and introduced the nuclei into mouse eggs from which the nuclei had been removed. (innovations-report.com)
  • differentiation
  • therefore, it is proposed that after directed cell differentiation, the cells could be transplanted without immune rejection to treat degenerative disorders such as diabetes, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease (among others). (sciencemag.org)
  • In vitro models of osteoclast differentiation are principally based on primary cell culture, which are poorly suited to molecular and transgene studies due to the limitations associated with the use of primary macrophage. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Biochemical studies of osteoclast differentiation and function have been hindered because a tractable cell culture model of osteoclast differentiation has not been available. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • molecular
  • For Lysotracker incorporation, mosaic eye discs or ovaries were dissected in Drosophila cell medium (M3, Sigma) and incubated in medium containing 1 μM Lysotracker (DND-99, Molecular Probes) for 5 minutes at room temperature, washed in fresh medium, mounted and imaged. (biologists.org)
  • Molecular analysis of CDR3 Vβ repertoire after CD4+ DLI demonstrated previously that the development of GVM and graft- versus -host-disease (GVHD) were associated with the clonal expansion of distinct T-cell populations in patient peripheral blood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hans Robert Schöler (born 30 January 1953) is a molecular biologist and stem cell researcher. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2004, Hans Schöler has been director of the Department Cell and Developmental Biology Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Münster. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem Cell
  • Cell Stem Cell 1:502-512. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • DLIs 5 provide effective therapy for patients with various hematologic malignancies who have relapsed after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Currently, 21 collaborative efforts are underway, ranging from maternal-infant research to cardiovascular disease treatment to stem cell therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Campbell believed all potential stem cell populations should be used for both basic and applied research which may provide basic scientific knowledge and lead to the development of cell therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • According to the researchers, previous cloning efforts had failed to clone animals from the nuclei of any mature "post-mitotic" cells such as neurons - that is, those that had ceased dividing to produce new cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers chose olfactory neurons as the source of genetic material because previous research had suggested that these cells might undergo gene rearrangements during development. (innovations-report.com)
  • Researchers have known for decades that cancer begins when certain key genes in an otherwise healthy cell mutate, and tumor growth depends on continuing, multiple mutations. (innovations-report.com)
  • germ
  • Germ-line interventions alter germ (reproductive) cells, thereby making changes that affect the next generation through the present generation's progeny. (apologeticspress.org)
  • At the same time, he was director of the Center for Animal Transgenesis and Germ Cell Research at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Dissociation kinetics of g209-2M/tHLA suggested enrichment of T cell effector populations expressing TCR with progressively higher affinity. (jimmunol.org)
  • genetically
  • So, using presently available in vitro fertilization techniques, they set out intentionally to create a "genetically matched" brother or sister for Molly-with the specific goal of using the newborn's stem cells (derived from the umbilical-cord blood shortly after birth) to treat Molly's condition. (apologeticspress.org)
  • protein
  • 10 ) has shown that repeated immunization of mice with pigeon cytochrome c protein shifted the T cell repertoire selection toward T cells with higher affinity TCR/epitope interactions, suggesting that repeated vaccination might progressively benefit host immune competence. (jimmunol.org)
  • genetic
  • The images are of a newborn mouse cloned from an olfactory sensory neuron that had been marked with a genetic change so that it would be green under fluorescent light. (innovations-report.com)
  • Some in the press speculated that a contributing factor to Dolly's death was that she could have been born with a genetic age of six years, the same age as the sheep from which she was cloned. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Extracellular calcium concentrations were reversed, with 1.5 times greater calcium concentrations outside cells in equines than in humans. (innovations-report.com)
  • 1997
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • organism
  • This is a form of asexual reproduction where an organism splits into fragments and then each of these fragments develop into mature, fully grown individuals that are clones of the original organism (See reproductive fragmentation). (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • NIH/3T3 and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were transfected with expression vectors for PPARs and retinoid × receptors, and PPAR responsive element reporter vector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • pluripotent cells
  • The ability to progress via a definitive ectoderm intermediate will underpin the development of rational and efficient methodologies for the derivation of specific ectodermal cell populations from pluripotent cells in culture for use as experimental models or to produce cells with therapeutic applications. (biologists.org)
  • genes
  • however it is highly homologous to other LILR genes, and can bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Therefore, if secreted, the LILRA3 might impair interactions of membrane-bound LILRs (such as LILRB1, an inhibitory receptor expressed on effector and memory CD8 T cells) with their HLA ligands, thus modulating immune reactions and influencing susceptibility to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granulysin is a cytolytic and proinflammatory molecule first identified by a screen for genes expressed "late" (3-5 days) after activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for DNA cloning to be completed, it is necessary to obtain discrete, small regions of an organism's DNA that constitute specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Replication-selective oncolytic adenoviruses are designed to replicate and spread into the tumor, resulting in cancer cell lysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • molecules
  • At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well as in the nucleus, where it is interacting with some subnuclear structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA cloning is important in asexual reproduction or creation of identical DNA molecules, and can be performed spontaneously by the cell or intentionally by laboratory researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only relatively small DNA molecules can be cloned in any available vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a single recombinant DNA molecule (composed of a vector plus an inserted DNA fragment) is introduced into a host cell, the inserted DNA can be replicated along with the vector, generating a large number of identical DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • WIPI2 mRNA is readily detectable in several commonly used laboratory cell lines (HEK293A, HeLa, A431) and several cancer cell lines, while WIPI1 expression is limited to cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two ways in which fragmentation is used in cellular processes describe normal cellular functions and common laboratory procedures performed with cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA cloning can also be performed intentionally by laboratory researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic scheme for this can be summarized as follows: Vector + DNA Fragment ↓ Recombinant DNA ↓ Replication of recombinant DNA within host cell ↓ Isolation, sequencing, and manipulation of purified DNA fragment There are numerous experimental variations to this scheme, but these steps are essential to DNA cloning in a laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Time-lapse phase-contrast (left) and fluorescence (right) movies of human ES cells (H9) grown in Essential 8 medium on vitronectin and transfected with 1 µL Lipofectamine Stem reagent complexed with a GFP-expression construct (500 ng total plasmid DNA). (thermofisher.com)
  • (A) Human ES (H9) cells or Human Episomal iPSCs were transfected with Lipofectamine Stem Reagent or FuGENE HD Regent according to the accompanying protocol and either a 5 kb or 11 kb DNA plasmid expressing GFP and examined for GFP expression 24 hours posttransfection. (thermofisher.com)
  • (B) Human ES (H9) cells were transfected with Lipofectamine Stem Reagent or FuGENE HD Reagent according to the protocol with an mRNA expressing GFP. (thermofisher.com)
  • We conclude that millicurrent stimulation of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes cultivated in a 3 D collagen gel and of osteochondral explants directly influences cell metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Her son, the Sage of the Six Paths, was born with the ability to produce chakra by combining physical energy (身体エネルギー, shintai enerugī), drawn from the trillions of cells that make up the human body, and mental energy (精神エネルギー, seishin enerugī), gained through experience and meditation. (wikipedia.org)
  • activates
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • 9kD granulysin is also a chemoattractant for T lymphocytes, monocytes, and other inflammatory cells and activates the expression of a number of cytokines, including RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1α, IL-10, IL-1, IL-6 and IFNα. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli cells
  • The yield and productivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid might be significantly improved if the overexpressed GadB in E. coli cells can be excreted outside, where it can directly transforms monosodium glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid. (springeropen.com)
  • grown
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • enzymes
  • For this reason, most restriction enzymes used in DNA cloning make staggered cuts in the DNA strands to create sticky ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • fluorescence
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • lineage
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • In Xenopus , the germline is specified through the inheritance of germ plasm formed during oogenesis and asymmetrically segregated into the future germ cell lineage. (biologists.org)
  • organisms
  • The majority of cell types in multicellular organisms are polarized and face two different environments. (rupress.org)
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragmentation
  • It remains inactive in growing cells while it is associated with its inhibitor (ICAD, DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa subunit, DFFA or DFF45) resulting into a complex ICAD-CAD. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, problems within a cell can sometimes cause fragmentation that results in irregularities such as red blood cell fragmentation and sperm cell DNA fragmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • reagent
  • Cell routine evaluation After removal of methanol, cells had been treated having a Coulter DNA-Prep reagent package (Beckman-Coulter, France). (cancercurehere.com)
  • All of these attributes make this versatile reagent an ideal addition to your stem cell research tool kit and a readily accessible alternative to electroporation. (thermofisher.com)
  • In the bottom panel NCRM-iPS cells transfected using Lipofectamine Stem Reagent with a ~10.5 kb plasmid expressing Cas9 and GFP followed by detection via immunocytochemistry. (thermofisher.com)