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  • hepatic glucose
  • Because hepatic glycogenolysis does not fully suppress after food ingestion, ( 19 , 20 ), the amount of glucose that actually is released into the systemic circulation from splanchnic tissues is determined by an interplay between the rate of glucose absorption, the rate of splanchnic (gut and hepatic) glucose extraction, and the rate of hepatic glucose production. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • dysfunction
  • To determine the biochemical cause of dysfunction, DBA/2 and C57BL/6 control islets were incubated in 11.1 mM or 40 mM glucose in the absence or presence of the AGE inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) for 10 days. (austin.org.au)
  • In conclusion, chronic high glucose-induced increases in AGE can result in islet dysfunction and this is associated with reduced glucokinase levels in a mouse model with susceptibility to islet failure. (austin.org.au)
  • T 2 DM affects several major organs, including heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys leading to disabling or even life-threatening complications such as cardiac dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and nephropathy [ 7 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • GLUT
  • This metabolite is taken up by cells which use a family of specialized transporters named GLUT- (glucose transporter) 1-7 (3) ( Figure 1 ). (scielo.br)
  • The antidiabetic potential of flavonoids are mainly through their modulatory effects on glucose transporter by enhancing GLUT-2 expression in pancreatic β cells and increasing expression and promoting translocation of GLUT-4 via PI3K/AKT, CAP/Cb1/TC10 and AMPK pathways. (ijbs.com)
  • endocrine
  • Evidence exists that the extrapancreatic cells producing and secreting these (neuro)endocrine signals also exhibit a glucose sensor and an ability to integrate nutrient and (neuro)hormonal messages. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), characterized by a complex, multifactorial, and chronic condition that often necessitates the use of various medications to achieve normal blood glucose, is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder with dire consequences for human health and well-being. (biomedcentral.com)
  • T2DM
  • It is therefore possible that a proportion of β-cells in T2DM islets may not be detectable by standard immunohistochemistry staining due to insulin degranulation, potentially leading to an overestimation of β-cell loss. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • neurons
  • Possibly providing an even higher level of control are glucose-sensitive neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus, which may then modulate β-cell function through neuronal means as well as affect feeding behavior. (physiology.org)
  • Glucose is a vital metabolite which is the main fuel for a large number of cells in the body including neurons and erythrocytes. (scielo.br)
  • neural cells
  • In vivo and ex vivo studies, showing that adult rodent and human pancreata contain rare insulin-expressing multipotent cells that can form islet and neural cells in culture, hint at this possibility ( 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • HLA-DR), leading to the activation of helper T-cells, which would in turn activate B-cells to produce antibodies (e.g., islet cell cytoplasmic autoantibodies and complement-fixing autoantibodies) as well as activate killer cells and cytotoxic T-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • PDX1
  • Diseases associated with PDX1 include Mody, Type Iv and Pancreatic Agenesis 1 . (genecards.org)
  • WB analysis of HEK293 (1) and PDX1 (AA: 39-283)-hIgGFc transfected HEK293 (2) cell lysate using GTX60573 PDX1 antibody [5A (genetex.com)
  • gene expression
  • Here, we use adenoviral vectors and oligonucleotide microarrays to determine the effects of the forced expression of SREBP1c on the gene expression profile of rat islets. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • More recently, it has been shown that glutamine is also able to regulate gene expression (1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation (2). (scielo.br)
  • molecular
  • This concept will be explored by reviewing a number of molecular similarities in these diverse cell types. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this way, further molecular analysis of the diverse glucose-sensing pathways may indicate the sites of dysregulation in diabetic and obese subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The prenatal origins and development of β-cells ( 1 , 2 ), the molecular mechanisms of adult β-cell proliferation ( 3 , 4 ), and programmed β-cell death ( 5 ) have all been reviewed recently and will not be revisited here. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • susceptibility
  • Despite decades of acknowledging that a loss of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells is central to the disorder now referred to as type 1 diabetes, the specific roles for genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, the immune system, and β-cells themselves in the pathogenic processes underlying the disorder remain unclear ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • precursor
  • Members of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) family of transcription factors, SREBPs, are synthesized as an endoplasmic reticulum-bound precursor that is proteolytically processed in the presence of an SREBP-cleavage activating protein (SCAP) to release the active, nuclearly targeted NH 2 -terminal domain ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Might islet stem/progenitor/precursor cells express low levels of insulin? (diabetesjournals.org)