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  • pathway
  • In the next steps, Kyn is further converted to other active metabolites, such as hydroxykynurenine, anthranilic acid, kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, quinolinic acid, and picolinic acid (Figure 1 A). The two end-products of the pathway are NAD + and ATP that both fuel cellular metabolism ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • semialdehyde
  • Kynureninase converts l -hydroxykynurenine to 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid that is further metabolized by hydroxyanthranilate dioxygenase to aminocarboxymuconic semialdehyde. (frontiersin.org)
  • Molecule
  • The impaired ability of antigen presentation of cancer cells can be restored by enhancement of gap-junction-forming molecule, connexin 43 (Cx43) [ 1 , 2 ]. (medsci.org)
  • cancer
  • In addition, IDO has been implicated in a diverse range of physiological and pathological conditions, including suppression of T cell proliferation, maternal tolerance to allogenic fetus, and immune escape of cancers ( 4 - 8 ), and is an attractive target for drug discovery against cancer and autoimmune and other diseases ( 2 , 9 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in endometrial cancer tissues (n = 80) was immunohistochemically scored as four groups (IDO-, 1+, 2+, and 3+). (nih.gov)
  • The inability of T cells to eliminate certain chronic pathogens or to attack cancer cells displaying tumor-specific Ags suggests that natural immunoregulatory processes can suppress T cell-mediated immunity even when directed against neo Ags ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Full
  • Immature DCs may promote tolerance in part by presenting antigens without the costimulatory signals required for full T cell activation ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)