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  • plasmid
  • Integration and excision of a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degradative plasmid in Alcaligenes paradoxus and evidence of its natural intergeneric transfer. (mysciencework.com)
  • A self-transmissible 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-degradative plasmid, pKA2, has been identified in a new 2,4-D-degrading strain, Alcaligenes paradoxus 2811P, isolated from agricultural soil. (mysciencework.com)
  • A derivative strain, 2811C, was isolated from a stock culture in which the entire pKA2 plasmid was apparently integrated into the host chromosome without loss of the 2,4-D+ phenotype. (mysciencework.com)
  • This interpretation is based on the disappearance of a free plasmid DNA band, a shift in the tfdA-hybridizing band to the chromosome, loss of transmissibility of the 2,4-D+ trait, and appropriate shifts in Southern hybridization bands of plasmid DNA compared with whole-cell DNA. (mysciencework.com)
  • The integrated plasmid of strain 2811C was excised either precisely or imprecisely after continued transfer on 2,4-D-containing medium. (mysciencework.com)
  • Another new 2,4-D-degrading strain, Pseudomonas pickettii 712, which was isolated from the same field plot but at a different time, was found to carry a plasmid that is nearly identical to pKA2. (mysciencework.com)
  • The plasmid of this strain, pKA4, is 40.9 kb long and has features in common with pKA2, such as high self-transmissibility, hybridization only to the tfdA gene among the 2,4-D-metabolic genes of 2,4-D-degradative plasmid pJP4, and similar restriction endonuclease-generated fragments. (mysciencework.com)
  • herbicide
  • Genotoxicity of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D):Higher plants as monitoring systems, American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3(3): 452-459. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Increased lymphocyte replicative index following 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Evaluate peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation (replicative index:RI) and micronuclei frequency (MF) among 2,4-D herbicide applicators. (nih.gov)
  • An electroanalytical methodology was developed for the direct determination of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) using a graphite-polyurethane composite electrode and square wave voltammetry (SWV). (hindawi.com)
  • The methodology was successfully applied to measure the percolation of the herbicide 2,4-D in undisturbed soil columns of different granulometric compositions. (hindawi.com)
  • However, despite the intensive use of this herbicide and its potential contamination of water resources, there is little information about the application of electroanalytical techniques for the analysis of 2,4-D in environmental samples, which motivates additional studies in this area. (hindawi.com)
  • The effects of exposure to the widely used herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), at environmentally permitted (1 mg L −1 ), slightly toxic (10 mg L −1 ), and highly toxic (100 mg L −1 ) concentrations were analyzed in gills of goldfish, Carassius auratus , a popular fish model for ecotoxicological research. (springer.com)
  • However, the acid form is poorly soluble, and therefore, some herbicide formulations consist of more soluble forms such as their sodium salts (soluble in water), ammonium salts or esters (soluble in oils). (springer.com)
  • Another example of a widely used herbicide is 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, Fig. 1 b). (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, this herbicide is easily translocated throughout the plants and influences the synthesis of nucleic acid and protein that affect the activity of enzymes, respiration and cell division. (springer.com)
  • 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a synthetic auxin used as a herbicide to control weeds in agriculture. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • 2,4-D can be found in numerous commercial lawn herbicide mixtures, and is widely used as a weed killer for cereal crops, pastures, and orchards. (com.vn)
  • Over 1,500 herbicide products contain 2,4-D as an active ingredient. (com.vn)
  • 2,4-D herbicide is also the main component in Agent Orange. (com.vn)
  • The prohibition on the use of paraquat and 2,4-D herbicide will ensure safe agricultural products and human health," Trung said. (com.vn)
  • 2,4-Dichlorophenol hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in the bacterial degradation of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) was purified from two bacterial strains that harbored the same 2,4-D plasmid, pJP4. (semanticscholar.org)
  • One of the cheapest and most common weed killers in the country has a name you've probably never heard: 2,4-D. Developed by Dow Chemical in the 1940s, this herbicide helped usher in the clean, green, pristine lawns of postwar America, ridding backyards everywhere of aesthetic undesirables like dandelion and white clover. (nrdc.org)
  • degradation
  • Its primary route of degradation in the environment is by microorganisms, which increases with temperature, humidity, pH, and organic matter content [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • weeds
  • But when the weeds it was intended to kill also developed resistance, 2,4-D was added to make the mix more effective. (nrdc.org)
  • Urinary
  • Gas chromatography/tandem mass spectroscopy determined urinary 2,4-D levels and standard in-vitro assays determined RI and MF scores. (nih.gov)
  • Applicator RI increased after spraying (p = 0.016), independent of tobacco and alcohol use, and demonstrated a weak dose-response with increasing urinary 2,4-D levels (p = 0.15). (nih.gov)
  • Urinary 2,4-D concentration, an exposure biomarker, may be associated with lymphocyte replicative index, a cell proliferation biomarker. (nih.gov)
  • enzymes
  • Activities of other antioxidant associated enzymes as well as other potential markers of stress (e.g. aminotransferase enzymes, acetylcholinesterase, lactate metabolism) showed little or no response in gills to 2,4-D exposure. (springer.com)
  • oxidative
  • Among markers of oxidative stress, goldfish exposure to 2,4-D did not affect carbonyl protein levels in the gills, but fish exposure to 100 mg L −1 of 2,4-D enhanced lipid peroxide concentrations (by 58 %) and oxidized glutathione levels (by 49 %), the latter also significantly increasing (by 33 %) oxidized/total glutathione ratio. (springer.com)
  • A combination of selected indices of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence, measured in fish gills, may provide to be effective biomarkers to assess environmental hazards of 2,4-D to freshwater ecosystems. (springer.com)
  • It is concluded that 2,4-D promotes oxidative and nitrosative stress, causing disturbances in the actin cytoskeleton, thereby affecting the dynamics of peroxisomes and some other organelles such as the mitochondria, with xanthine dehydrogenase being involved in ROS production under these conditions. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Carcinogen
  • Nevertheless, in 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer declared 2,4-D a possible human carcinogen , based on evidence that it damages human cells and, in a number of studies, caused cancer in laboratory animals. (nrdc.org)
  • laboratory
  • Dozens of epidemiological, animal, and laboratory studies have shown a link between 2,4-D and thyroid disorders. (nrdc.org)
  • Most common laboratory acids and bases are corrosive, as well as some amines and solutions of certain metal salts (e.g., a 0.1M aqueous solution of ferric chloride has a pH of 2.0). (baylor.edu)
  • oxidation
  • Glyphosate (PMG) wastewater with 40-600 mg/L organic phosphorus (OP) and 1-4% CH2O was treated by catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) and the lime-catalyzed formose reaction to remove total phosphorus (TP) and improve biodegradability. (environmental-expert.com)
  • metabolism
  • Comparative uptake and metabolism of 2-[14C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in callus cultures of monocot (Dioscorea spp. (scielo.br)
  • The uptake and metabolism of 2-[ 14 C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were investigated in leaf calluses of Nicotiana tabacum , tuber calluses of Dioscorea opposita and calluses derived from zygotic embryos, leaves and petioles of Dioscorea composita . (scielo.br)
  • Preliminary investigations on the stability of various metabolites (separated using TLC) by hydrolysis showed that sugar esters appeared to be the major metabolites in tobacco whilst in yams ( D. opposita ) glycosides were shown to be the main ones, which indicated a similarity between plants of Gramineae and Dioscoreaceae in terms of 2,4-D metabolism. (scielo.br)
  • kanamycin
  • The cells were placed on kanamycin-containing media (10, 25 or 50 mg/l) 2 d after bombardment. (springer.com)
  • pesticides
  • EPA Pesticides, p. There is limited positive data that 2,4-D causes birth defects in experimental animals. (nih.gov)
  • percent
  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture estimates that by 2020, the use of 2,4-D on America's farms could rise between 100 percent and 600 percent now that it has been approved as part of Enlist Duo. (nrdc.org)
  • weed killer
  • Despite concerns about potential health risks, in 2014 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency approved the combined use of 2,4-D and the popular weed killer Roundup (also known as glyphosate, a whole other-and in many ways more worrying-story when it comes to health and the environment). (nrdc.org)
  • accumulation
  • 2,4-D (23 mM) promotes leaf epinasty, whereas this process was prevented by EDTA, which can reduce ·OH accumulation. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The analysis of ROS accumulation by confocal microscopy showed a 2,4-D-dependent increase in both H2O2 and O2·(-), whereas total NO was not affected by the treatment. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • water
  • The CRYSTAL QUEST 2-7/8" x 9-3/4" Multi Stage ULTRA Filter Cartridge is compatible with the Crystal Quest countertop, undersink and refrigerator water filters. (waterfilters.net)
  • concentrations
  • Applicators contributed 45 urine specimens with concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 1700 (microg 2,4-D/g creatinine/L urine) that logarithmically (In) increased as spraying time increased. (nih.gov)
  • studies
  • But even though fetuses, infants, and children are at highest risk of these, no studies have looked directly at the effects of 2,4-D on those groups. (nrdc.org)
  • common
  • But the downside of using such chemicals is that they can poison people and pets as well as backyard wildlife: "Common insecticide ingredients such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), atrazine and dicamba have been shown to harm mouse embryos at times equivalent to the first week after conception in humans," says Erica Glasener of The Green Guide. (acronymfinder.com)
  • 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was the second most common (8 events). (acronymfinder.com)
  • It is well known from the literature that 2,4-D exhibits poor electroactivity on most common electrode material surfaces, such as carbon, platinum, and mercury [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • reduction
  • 2,4-D exhibited one reduction peak with characteristics of an irreversible process at −0.54 V (versus Ag/AgCl), which is controlled by the diffusion of the reagent on the electrode surface. (hindawi.com)
  • chemicals
  • But both of these can be caused by a number of chemicals, including dioxin, which was frequently mixed into formulations of 2,4-D until the mid-1990s. (nrdc.org)
  • dose
  • Biochemical aspects (a) Absorption, distribution, and excretion The pharmacokinetics of 14 C-2,4-D (purity, 98%) was studied in groups of 26 male B6C3F1 mice after a single oral dose at 5, 45, or 90 mg/kg bw and a single intravenous administration of 90 mg/kg bw. (inchem.org)
  • In order to evaluate excretion balance, groups of five mice were given the same single doses of 14 C-2,4-D by gavage or an intravenous dose of 5 or 90 mg/kg bw. (inchem.org)
  • A greater portion of the 2,4-D-derived radiolabel appeared in the faeces in animals at the higher dose: 15% in those at 45 mg/kg bw orally, 16% with 90 mg/kg bw orally, and 12% with 90 mg/kg bw intravenously. (inchem.org)
  • Less than 1.1% of the dose was retained in the animals seven days after administration of 14 C-2,4-D, independently of the dose and route of administration. (inchem.org)
  • products
  • The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has issued a diktat prohibiting the use of plant protection products containing paraquat and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in Viet Nam. (com.vn)
  • According to the ministry's decision, several products containing 2,4-D and paraquat used in Viet Nam currently would be removed from the list of plant protection drugs. (com.vn)
  • levels
  • Because of the apparent lag in clearance at the higher doses and the high levels of 2,4-D-derived radiolabel in plasma during the first 4 h after administration of these doses, a two-compartment model with Michaelis-Menten limited clearance was chosen. (inchem.org)
  • kidney
  • Consumption of≥2 servings per day of artificially sweetened soda is associated with a 2-fold increased odds for kidney function decline in women. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • data
  • The 1974 Meeting reviewed data on the use and residues of 2,4-D and concluded that there was no need to modify the previously established ADI. (inchem.org)