• Degradation of the Chlorinated Phenoxyacetate Herbicides 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid and 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid by Pure and Mixed Bacterial Cultures. (epa.gov)
  • Clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridine-carboxylic acid) is a one of the synthetic pyridine-carboxylate auxin herbicides (also known as the picolinic acid herbicides) like picloram and aminopyralid. (researchsquare.com)
  • 2,4-D & 2,4,5-T and other persistent chemicals were applied as herbicides and pesticides in and near water sources (Lake Gatun) and on the ground in the Panama Canal Zone, all around the bases where we worked, and even the quarters where we lived. (panamaveterans.org)
  • Review and Analysis: Did the United States Transport, Off-Load and Use Commercial 2,4,5-T Herbicides with Unknown Amounts of Dioxin TCDD on Military Base Grounds in Panama Canal Zone between 1948 and 1999? (panamaveterans.org)
  • 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (also known as 2,4,5-T), a synthetic auxin, is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to defoliate broad-leafed plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In 1970, the United States Department of Agriculture halted the use of 2,4,5-T on all food crops except rice, and in 1985, the EPA terminated all remaining uses in the U.S. of this herbicide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the course of maintenance activities, workers came into contact with the herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic-acid (93765) (2,4,5- T). A list of all live births among union members who worked for the railroad was collected and analyzed. (cdc.gov)
  • The most commonly used pesticide for home and garden was the herbicide 2, 4-D with an estimated use of 3000-4000 tons in those applications, giving an average domestic use per capita of ~ 15g /year. (cdc.gov)
  • Agent Orange" means any herbicide, defoliant, or pesticide containing dioxin and composed primarily of trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. (mn.gov)
  • 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) is a synthetic auxin, or plant growth regulator, that is a chlorinated derivative of phenoxyacetic acid, and was widely used as a herbicide until concerns about its environmental persistence, bioaccumulation, and potential health effects led to its discontinuation. (lookformedical.com)
  • It's also important to note that 2,4,5-T is not used in medical field, it's mainly used as herbicide and defoliant. (lookformedical.com)
  • 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid is a synthetic auxin, specifically a phenoxy herbicide, used for controlling broadleaf weeds and grasses in various crops due to its plant growth regulator properties. (lookformedical.com)
  • In addition, the manufacturing process for 2,4,5-T can contaminate this commercial herbicide with unknown amounts of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). (panamaveterans.org)
  • TCDD is an unanticipated contaminant created during the manufacture of the herbicide 2,4,5-T. TCDD has a very long half-life and does not degrade easily. (panamaveterans.org)
  • The civilian and military workers, who handled and moved this commercial 2,4,5-T herbicide around the world, including Panama, have been affected. (panamaveterans.org)
  • The herbicide 2,4,5-T, with unknown amounts of dioxin TCDD, was transported, according to shipping records, to Panama Canal Zone ports, including Balboa and Cristobal, and distributed to the US military bases in Panama Canal Zone by rail or truck. (panamaveterans.org)
  • It was developed in the late 1940s, synthesized by reaction of 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol and chloroacetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroacetic acid is converted to chloroacetyl chloride, a precursor to adrenaline (epinephrine). (kat-chem.hu)
  • Agent Pink contained 100% 2,4,5-T (dioxin contaminates included). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Panama Veteran and family very likely came in contact with dioxin contained in 2,4-D & 2,4,5-T through work, play, the food we ate, and the water we drank. (panamaveterans.org)
  • With proper temperature control during production of 2,4,5-T, TCDD levels can be held to about .005 ppm. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1984. Schecter AJ, Tong HY, Monson SJ, Goss ML. Levels of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in silt samples collected between 1985 and 1986 from rivers in the North and South of Vietnam. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pacific Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC), 5-8 Dec 2000. (unigoa.ac.in)
  • Thioglycolic acid and its derivatives are used in the production of hair cosmetics. (kat-chem.hu)
  • 2,4,5-T". Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) because the surface soil contains organic chemicals and metals at concentrations potentially of human health concern, and trespassing occurs. (cdc.gov)
  • Effects of genotype and 2,4,5-T concentrations on callus induction, shoot formation and plant regeneration from young infloresceances in orchardgrass ( Dactylis glomerata L. (wflpublisher.com)
  • This study was carried out to determine the effects of MS medium supplemented with 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg l -1 of 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) on young inflorescences of five ecotypes of orchardgrass ( Dactylis glomerata L.). The results showed that there was a significant interaction between ecotypes and 2,4,5-T concentrations in all characteristics studied. (wflpublisher.com)
  • Rates of callus induction and shoot formation as well as callus weight were also significantly influenced by the 2,4,5-T concentrations. (wflpublisher.com)
  • Glycolates are esters of glycolic acid, used topically in dermatology as exfoliating agents, promoting skin rejuvenation by increasing cell turnover and reducing fine lines and wrinkles. (lookformedical.com)
  • Glycolates are a type of chemical compound that contain the group COOCH2, which is derived from glycolic acid. (lookformedical.com)
  • Monochloroacetic acid is used in the manufacture of many other important organic chemicals e.g. carboxymethyl cellulose, ibuprofen, caffeine, glycine, EDTA or glycolic acid. (kat-chem.hu)
  • IARC considers the chlorophenoxyacetic acids group of chemicals as possibly carcinogenic to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid is a synthetic auxin, which is a type of plant hormone. (lookformedical.com)
  • In Canada, the use and sale of 2,4,5-T was prohibited after 1985. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2,4,5-T itself is toxic with a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg/day and a LOAEL of 10 mg/kg/day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth and viability studies revealed that such mixtures of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T were toxic to AC1100 alone and to combinations of AC1100 and JMP134. (epa.gov)
  • The most widely used fungicides in agriculture are the alkali and metal salts of the alkelenebis-(dithiocarbamate) acids. (cdc.gov)
  • Monochloroacetic acid is widely used in chemical industry as intermediates in the synthesis of indigo dyes . (kat-chem.hu)
  • The new strain, designated RHJ1, was shown to efficiently degrade mixtures of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T through the simultaneous metabolism of these compounds. (epa.gov)
  • A new derivative of strain AC1100 was constructed by the transfer into the organism of the 2,4-D-degradative plasmid pJP4 from strain JMP134. (epa.gov)
  • The major industrial use of monochloroacetic acid ( MCA ) is in the manufacture of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) . (kat-chem.hu)
  • High-pressure liquid chromatography analyses of culture supernatants of AC1100 incubated with 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T revealed the accumulation of chlorohydroquinone as an apparent dead-end catabolite of 2,4-D and the subsequent accumulation of both 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol. (epa.gov)
  • V Viruses: Member States are to ensure that all viruses which have already been isolated in humains and which have not been assessed and allocated in this Annex are classified in group 2 as a minimum, except where Member States have proof that they are unlikely to cause disease in humans. (europa.eu)
  • Human health effects from 2,4,5-T at low environmental doses or at biomonitored levels from low environmental exposures are unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • On military bases in the Panama Canal Zone and around the world, the United States' decision to use 2,4,5-T has also impacted the local environment and human health. (panamaveterans.org)
  • JMP134 cells incubated in the same medium did not catabolize 2,4,5-T and were also inhibited in initiating 2,4-D catabolism. (epa.gov)
  • The explants cultured on MS medium containing 4 mg -1 of 2,4,5-T showed highest callus induction rate of 53.8 % with callus weight of 170.4 mg/Petri dish and 1.6 shoots per explant. (wflpublisher.com)
  • It was concluded that best regeneration from young inflorescence explant of orchardgrass ( D . glomerata ) could be obtained on MS medium containing 4 mg 1 -1 of 2,4,5-T and the developed protocol will help in easy multiplication of orchard grass in future breeding studies. (wflpublisher.com)
  • The author recommends that exposure to 2,4,5-T be controlled. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1963 a production vessel for 2,4,5-T exploded in the Philips-Duphar plant in the Netherlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to note that exposure to 2,4,5-T has been linked to various health issues, including developmental and reproductive problems, as well as an increased risk of cancer. (lookformedical.com)
  • The researchers investigated the effects of the two main constituents of Agent Orange (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) on markers of Alzheimer's neurodegeneration using the samples from the frontal lobes of laboratory rats. (j-alz.com)
  • In this experiment, we investigated the effects of Siltech OP40 and crude oil ISB on a) petroleum-derived dissolved organic matter (DOMHC) composition and b) seawater microbial community diversity over 28 days at 4 °C in aquarium-scale mesocosms. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2,4,5-T has been banned in many countries due to concerns about its toxicity and potential health effects. (lookformedical.com)
  • Details are provided in Table 4-2. (cdc.gov)
  • These conclusions, along with information regarding the type and location of the site, and the date and type of assessment document, are summarized in Table 4-1, for sites that had public heath hazard categories of 1-3 at some point during their assessment history, and all NPL sites. (cdc.gov)
  • 2 nm) exerts a profound inhibitory effect on pollen tube growth. (shengsci.com)
  • Different parameters such as root growth, membrane integrity, antioxidant enzyme activities, MI and CAs can be evaluated by Allium test due to its fast growing roots and its large and reduced chromosomes (2 n = 16), respectively (Bianchi et al. (researchsquare.com)
  • Monochloroacetic acid (MCA) appears as colorless or white hygroscopic crystals (above 19°C - liquid) but it can also be available commercially in a water solution. (kat-chem.hu)
  • This result corresponds with an apparent increase in the percentage of surface oil photodissolution from approximately 4% in the absence of dispersant to 7% in the presence of dispersant. (bvsalud.org)