• However, the discovery that blood in the leech gut did not coagulate by John Haycraft in 1884 and the isolation of this anticoagulant, hirudin, from leech pharyngeal glands by F. Markwardt in the late 1950s ensured the medical importance of the leech. (uconn.edu)
  • Then after the discovery of hirudin, a potent anticoagulant, in the leech's saliva, leeches made their medical come back. (nagalandpost.com)
  • In modern times, leeches find medical use in microsurgery , while hirudin is a valuable drug for some blood-clotting disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The saliva of a leech contains 13 effective components, one of them being the protein Hirudin, a strong thrombin inhibitor. (easycareinc.com)
  • 1 , 9 , 10 Hirudin was first described more than a century ago and characterized as a 65-amino acid peptide with antithrombokinase activity. (drugs.com)
  • After attaching to the site, leeches secrete compounds, especially hirudin, that reduce blood viscosity. (drugs.com)
  • Later on, production of recombinant hirudin by biotechnological methods opened up a new page in the long history of leeching and hirudotherapy 5. (bulklist.co)
  • Characteristics of isolated Krampfadern und Rostov Hirudin is a highly specific and potent inhibitor of thrombin: Although Krampfadern und Rostov thought of as single substance, it has been found to constitute a family of isomorphic to residue proteins when isolated from various leech populations 6. (bulklist.co)
  • A lack of documented success led to a sharp decline in the use of leeches in the 20th century-that is, until its application in managing a common postoperative complication of microvascular surgery became evident. (dvm360.com)
  • Use of leeches underwent a renaissance of sorts in the area of modern plastic reconstructive surgery and particularly in microsurgery transplantation. (blogspot.com)
  • Both groups are hermaphrodites and have a clitellum , but leeches typically differ from the oligochaetes in having suckers at both ends and in having external annulations that do not correspond with their internal segmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The whole group, including both the traditional oligochaetes and the leeches are now simpy referred to as Clitellata. (amnh.org)
  • Cladistic research since 1997 has radically changed this scheme, viewing leeches as a sub-group of oligochaetes and oligochaetes as a sub-group of polychaetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The freshwater or amphibious worm-leeches are carnivorous and equipped with a relatively large, toothless mouth to ingest insect larvae, molluscs, and other annelid worms, which are swallowed whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • A clinical trial suggested that patients receiving leech thearpy experienced less pain than the control group. (uconn.edu)
  • The first recorded clinical use of leeches occurred about 2,500 years ago. (deseretnews.com)
  • 24 A meta-analysis of clinical studies (n=4) reported moderate to strong evidence for pain reduction, functional impairment, and joint stiffness following leech therapy. (drugs.com)
  • The more primitive Acanthobdellidea are often included with the leeches, but some authors treat them as a separate clitellate group. (wikipedia.org)
  • But this image of the leech as something slimy that sticks to you in the jungle has always been counterbalanced by a curious benefit. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Studies have also shown that leech saliva contains enzymes that may disrupt atherosclerotic plaques, the materials that harden arteries and contribute to heart disease. (deseretnews.com)
  • It is also thought that the saliva contains an anesthetic, as leech bites are generally not painful. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, Francois Broussais (1772 - 1832) proposed that all disease resulted from excess build up of blood and the alleviation of this condition required heavy leeching and starvation. (uconn.edu)
  • The first description of leech therapy, classified as blood letting, was found in the text of Sushruta Samhita, written by Sushruta in 800 B.C., who was also considered the father of Surgery. (nagalandpost.com)
  • In medieval and early modern medicine, the medicinal leech was used to remove blood from a patient. (nagalandpost.com)
  • Leeches are being used to treat diseases through Raktmokshan, a method where impure blood is removed from body which is being sucked by leech. (nagalandpost.com)
  • a warm cup or a wine glass was placed over the incision and the leech to bring as much blood as possible to the surface. (rnceus.com)
  • Each leech absorbed about 1/2 ounce or more of blood. (rnceus.com)
  • Elderly horses were used as leech feed and were sent into the water until they died of blood loss. (rnceus.com)
  • The next time you hear someone talking about a blood-sucking leech, that person may be referring to the latest breakthrough in medical technology to crawl out of a physician's black bag. (deseretnews.com)
  • But after physicians complained that they lacked an adequate medical technology to provide smooth blood circulation following surgery, researchers returned to the leech for help. (deseretnews.com)
  • The chemicals in leech saliva include an anti-coagulant and local anesthetic, which help restore blood circulation and allow tissue to establish itself at the surgical location. (deseretnews.com)
  • Sanguivorous leeches can store blood inside their bodies for months, and symbiotic bacteria- Aeromonas species located in the gut-secrete enzymes that help break down the components of blood. (dvm360.com)
  • Each leech can remove about 5 to 10 ml of blood per feeding, and each site will continue to ooze blood for an additional 24 to 48 hours after detachment, allowing for an additional blood meal (5 to 10 ml) to be lost. (dvm360.com)
  • The efficacy of leeches in salvaging flaps in human surgical patients has been widely proved, with some studies quantifiably illustrating increased blood flow throughout the leech-treated flap. (dvm360.com)
  • Medicinal leech therapy helps remove venous blood, which reduces the capillary filling pressure, so that damaged veins have time to recover and arterial capillary beds can reperfuse. (dvm360.com)
  • These achieve a wide variety of goals useful to the leech as it feeds, helping to keep the blood in liquid form and increasing blood flow in the affected area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leeches were used in medicine from ancient times until the 19th century to draw blood from patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within this order, the Hirudidae are aquatic and the Haemadipsidae are terrestrial and mainly blood-feeders, including Haemadipsa sylvestris , the Indian leech and Haemadipsa zeylanica , the Japanese mountain leech. (wikipedia.org)
  • As if cutting people open to release their blood doesn't sound bad enough, physicians in France and England used to use leeches to suck the blood of patients in the 1830s and 1840s. (phlebotomyu.com)
  • While leeches are currently still used to help with removing blood in swollen areas or following procedures with an increased risk for blood clots, there are much safer means to draw blood for diagnostic purposes. (phlebotomyu.com)
  • June 28, 2004 -- Coming to a pharmacy near you, hordes of blood -sucking leeches! (webmd.com)
  • There are scores of different types of leech including the giant 'two pints today, please' amazonian leech (see the American Museum of Natural History website listed below), big enough to give you the creeps but not exactly the blood sucking monster of B-movie fantasy. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • A later justification for leech therapy arose from the classical Greek theory of bodily function which involved humors (good and bad) contained in the blood. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • The second is a refined understanding of how the leech is able to draw large amounts of blood from a host. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Without any clotting, blood flows more freely within the damaged tissue - and, naturally, from the host to the leech. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Arterial insufficiency, previous exposure to leeches (risk of allergic reaction), immunosuppression (risk of infection), patient refusal to accept possible subsequent blood transfusions, and unstable medical conditions have been described as contraindications for extensive leech therapy. (drugs.com)
  • The leech is a well known species of worm that lives in water, and is applied to various parts of the body, to draw blood for the cure of disease. (blogspot.com)
  • and in children, where it is so difficult to get blood from a vein, leeches furnish an excellent resource. (blogspot.com)
  • Salt has been thrown on the animal to make it disgorge the blood which it has sucked, but the leech is generally killed in the experiment. (blogspot.com)
  • Most leeches are hematophagous, as they are predominantly blood suckers that feed on blood from vertebrate and invertebrate animals. (primidi.com)
  • Leeches considered to be less painful and more dependable in removing a fixed amount of blood 1. (bulklist.co)
  • During the 17 th and 18 th centuries, blood-letting in general and leeching in particular were important Krampfadern und Rostov of the stock-in-trade of barber-surgeons 2, 3. (bulklist.co)
  • The American leech did not make as large or deep an incision as the European leech and drew less blood 1. (bulklist.co)
  • True leeches of the infraclass Euhirudinea have both anterior and posterior suckers . (wikipedia.org)
  • In up to 20% of the patients receiving leech treatment after microvascular surgery, infections by Aeromonas occurred. (uconn.edu)
  • Medicinal leeching can be used to reduce complications of microvascular ( e.g., replantation) or reconstructive surgeries ( e.g., skin flaps), to decrease postoperative swelling from damaged venous structures, and to drain hematomas. (dvm360.com)
  • Avulsion of the scalp treated by microvascular repair: the use of leeches for post-operative decongestion. (springer.com)
  • Glossiphoniidae are flattened freshwater leeches, mostly parasitic on vertebrates such as turtles, and unique among annelids in carrying their young under their bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leech therapy is especially helpful with auricular replantation because of the challenging aspect of finding and reconnecting vessels of this size and the risk of damage to vessels during attempts at anastomosis. (dvm360.com)
  • As such, procedures like scalp replantation, pedicled and free flap surgery, ear replantation as well as finger replantation have been successfully performed with the help of leeches. (springer.com)
  • The use of leeches in distal digital replantation. (springer.com)
  • Microsurgical replantation of a partial ear, with leech therapy. (springer.com)
  • Delayed leech-borne infection with Aeromonas hydrophilia in escharotic flap wound. (springer.com)
  • Over-exploitation by leech collectors in the 19th century has left only scattered populations, and reduction in natural habitat though drainage has also contributed to their decline. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Africa, biologist have observed that buffalos and cattle seek out ponds with high leech populations, stand in the water for 30 to 45 minutes, get a leech treatment and then leave the pond when the leeches are full and have fallen off. (easycareinc.com)
  • The leech bite, which closely resembles the Mer-cedes Benz logo, has proved to be especially effective in the case of tissue transplants or re-attaching tissue. (deseretnews.com)
  • The mouths of these leeches consist of a tripartite jaw, which creates the typical star or Y-shaped bite, with 60 to 100 teeth total, and each mouth has its own secretory opening. (dvm360.com)
  • Internal hirudiniasis: vaginal bleeding resulting from leech bite. (springer.com)
  • Rectal bleeding due to leech bite in a young child. (springer.com)
  • Bleeding due to a medicinal leech bite. (springer.com)
  • For this purpose the leech has an exquisitely adapted mouth: 3 jaws and hundreds of tiny teeth which reputedly leave a bite mark shaped like a Mercedes-Benz symbol. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Although leeches can bite through the skin of a hippo and also through hair, they prefer clean skins. (easycareinc.com)
  • Leeches can bite on both ends, so just hold that cup to the area to let them bite. (easycareinc.com)
  • Records of the medical usage of leeches dates back to the beginning of civilization. (uconn.edu)
  • In 2004, US FDA approved leech as a medical device. (nagalandpost.com)
  • With passage of time medical people starting discrediting leeches, choosing instead to rely on antibiotics and other medicines and by the end of 19th century, the use of leeches faded away. (nagalandpost.com)
  • The Mexican medical leech is Hirudinaria manillensis, and the North American medical leech is Macrobdella decora. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical use of leeches was discussed by Avicenna in The Canon of Medicine (1020s), and by Abd-el-latif al-Baghdadi in the 12th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • The jar's elaborate presentation indicates the high value leeches held as a commodity during this period, as they were sold in great numbers to members of both the medical profession and the public. (si.edu)
  • Ricarimpex SAS, a French company, is the first to request and receive FDA clearance to market leeches in the U.S. as medical devices. (webmd.com)
  • In approving leeches as a medical device, the FDA says it reviewed the literature on leeches use in medicine and evaluated the safety information provided by Ricarimpex. (webmd.com)
  • According to the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) the new, modern leech is a medical device. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • This is not as bizarre as it seems - if you supposed leeches were an ugly aspect of medical superstition, think again. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • In fact, leeches have been in regular use for medical purposes and the recent decision by the FDA merely satisfied a legal requirement to clear new applications to sell them - the first since the 1976 law was enacted. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • The leech was simply a medical device to remove bad humors. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • It was not till the middle of last century that leeches kind of disappeared for about 30 years from the medical field. (easycareinc.com)
  • Tonsillitis was treated by lowering a leech, secured by a thread ( leech leash ) into the throat to attach to the swollen glands. (rnceus.com)
  • Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worm-like animals that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea . (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastic surgeons are using leeches to treat challenging skin grafts and most especially for reconstructive surgery. (nagalandpost.com)
  • The phylogenetic tree of the leeches and their annelid relatives is based on molecular analysis (1999) of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase . (wikipedia.org)
  • Considerable attention has been focused on the leeches since 1999 by Curator Siddall. (amnh.org)
  • Horses do very well with leech treatment and enjoy the whole experience. (easycareinc.com)
  • Clean your own hands with water only, take a little mini cup, fetch a leech from your container and hold it with the container to the horses skin. (easycareinc.com)
  • Both the Cloud and the Leech can work very well together for the welfare of our horses. (easycareinc.com)
  • The leeching process is minimally invasive and pain-free because of an anesthetic, histamine-like substance that is found in leech saliva. (dvm360.com)
  • Interest in leeching continued throughout the Byzantine and Middle Ages, and the influence of Galen on the use of leeches is obvious in the writings of Paul of Aegina AD and Rhazes to AD. (bulklist.co)
  • The Persian physician Avicenna to went even further, contending that leeching kept lovers from sinking into madness 2. (bulklist.co)
  • These surgeons credit their own use of leeches to a Parisian surgeon, one Philippe-Frédéric, who reported in 1836 that he had used leeches to restore circulation following reconstruction of a nose. (blogspot.com)
  • FARK.com: (7280845) Elderly woman takes it upon herself to restore a church's 19th century fresco. (fark.com)
  • After a treatment with the leeches for any of these pathologies mentioned above, the Easyboot Cloud is almost a must to give the horse ongoing relief and support. (easycareinc.com)
  • Francois Joseph Broussais toan ex-army surgeon in Napoleons army, gave a tremendous impetus to leech treatment. (bulklist.co)
  • There are at least 100 bioactive compounds in leech saliva. (dvm360.com)
  • 3 The mechanism behind this process is thought to be a combination of relieving obstruction and capillary pressure and of increasing microcirculation because of vasoactive compounds injected by the leech. (dvm360.com)
  • It was proposed that American diseases were more virulent than European ones and, therefore, small bleeding, the result of using American leeches, was not effective. (uconn.edu)
  • Myself, I have been using leeches on my tennis elbow, thumb capsule inflammation, broken toe, just to name a few. (easycareinc.com)
  • Sometimes the wounds made by leeches, give rise to a good deal of pain, swelling, and extensive inflammation. (blogspot.com)