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  • Inhalational
  • The inhalational anthrax case occurred in a 61-year-old woman who worked in the stockroom of a hospital in Manhattan. (cdc.gov)
  • Since the last report ( 1 ), cutaneous disease was confirmed in two patients, and inhalational anthrax was confirmed in two patients, one of whom was previously classified as a suspected case-patient. (cdc.gov)
  • Inhalational anthrax was confirmed in a 56-year-old female postal worker who initially was classified as a suspected case-patient ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • These included 11 cases of inhalational anthrax, 5 of them fatal, and 11 cutaneous cases (7 confirmed, 4 suspected). (umn.edu)
  • In addition, the two cases of fatal inhalational anthrax in New York City and Connecticut triggered speculation that the fatal dose for some people could be very low, the report notes. (umn.edu)
  • On the other hand, before anthrax vaccination became a requirement for workers in US goat-hair mills in the 1960s, "many unvaccinated person-years of high-risk exposure had occurred, but only 13 cases of inhalational anthrax were reported," the article says. (umn.edu)
  • The mortality rate in 20th century cases of inhalational anthrax in theUnited States was 89%, much higher than that in the 2001 attacks, in which 6 of 11 patients survived. (umn.edu)
  • The first 10 patients with inhalational anthrax in 2001 all presented with malaise and fever, and all had abnormal chest x-ray findings, in most cases including mediastinal widening, infiltrates, and pleural effusion. (umn.edu)
  • The index case of inhalational anthrax in 2001 was identified "because of an alert clinician who suspected the disease on the basis of large gram-positive bacilli in cerebrospinal fluid in a patient with a compatible clinical illness" and because of the subsequent analysis by lab personnel who had had bioterrorism training. (umn.edu)
  • Treatment of inhalational anthrax. (drugs.com)
  • 8 years of age or in pregnant women, the benefits of doxycycline outweigh the risks and CDC and others state doxycycline can be used when necessary for treatment of inhalational anthrax in these individuals. (drugs.com)
  • 102 143 If occurring in the context of biologic warfare or bioterrorism, use parenteral regimens recommended for inhalational anthrax. (drugs.com)
  • anthracis
  • Therefore, further understanding of B. anthracis toxicity is required for the acceleration of progress in the development of novel anthrax therapies and prophylaxes. (frontiersin.org)
  • This e-book can be a most popular reference for B. Anthracis and anthrax to microbiologists, scientific and public health and wellbeing pros, bioterror learn and preparedness, immunologists, and physiologists. (antoniosonnessa.com)
  • 2002
  • UK dossier, 24 September 2002 , p.18: 'The JIC concluded that Iraq had sufficient expertise, equipment and material to produce biological warfare agents within weeks using its legitimate bio-technology facilities. (grassrootspeace.org)
  • CIA, October 2002 , p.15: 'The improvement or expansion of a number of nominally 'civilian' facilities that were directly associated with biological weapons indicates that key aspects of Iraq's offensive BW program are active and most elements more advanced and larger than before the 1990-1991 Gulf war. (grassrootspeace.org)
  • State Department, 12 September 2002 , p.8, sourcing UNSCOM's final reports: 'Iraq admitted to producing biological agents, and after the 1995 defection of a senior Iraqi official, Iraq admitted to the weaponization of thousands of liters of anthrax, botulinim toxin, and aflatoxin for use with Scud warheads, aerial bombs and aircraft. (grassrootspeace.org)
  • State Department, 12 September 2002 , p.8: 'UNSCOM reported to the UN Security Council in April 1995 that Iraq had concealed its biological weapons program and had failed to account for 3 tons of growth material for biological agents. (grassrootspeace.org)
  • August 2002: U.S. Under Secretary of State for Arms Control, John R. Bolton, says that in regard to chemical weapons "there is little doubt that North Korea has an active program. (wisconsinproject.org)
  • Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: updated recommendations for management. (canarydatabase.org)
  • attacks
  • The update was prompted by the anthrax attacks of last fall, which caused 22 confirmed or suspected cases. (umn.edu)
  • Maryland Republican Rep. Roscoe Bartlett, who represents Frederick , and Democratic Rep. Rush Holt, from the New Jersey district where the anthrax letters were mailed, want the director of National Intelligence to investigate potential foreign connections to the attacks. (blogspot.com)
  • In recent years, substantial efforts have been initiated to develop new drugs, vaccines, and other medical interventions against biological agents that could be used in bioterrorist attacks against civilian populations. (worldcat.org)
  • bacterium
  • Robin Cook's latest plot--the threat of an anthrax [bacterium] turned loose in a New York government building and in Central Park--is ripped straight from the headlines, and as such it may be charitably described as having a certain lumpish quality in the prose and an overabundance of cuteness in the lead characters. (abebooks.com)
  • prophylaxis
  • The purpose of this work is to generalize the literary data on a question about prophylaxis and treatment of anthrax, to designate the prospects of further researches. (bio.su)
  • All of these are don't allows to reach desirable result in prophylaxis and therapy of anthrax. (bio.su)
  • Search of new means of prophylaxis and treatment of the Anthrax and development of new approaches in this direction are very actual. (bio.su)
  • Vaccines
  • Anthrax is also commonly associated with Pasteur's well-known pioneering work on livestock vaccines a century later. (au-ibar.org)
  • Bioterrorism
  • Since October 3, 2001, CDC and state and local public health authorities have been investigating cases of bioterrorism-related anthrax. (cdc.gov)
  • A total of 21 cases (16 confirmed and five suspected) of bioterrorism-related anthrax have been reported among persons who worked in the District of Columbia, Florida, New Jersey, and New York City ( Figure 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Chemical
  • In December 2008, the Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism said it was "more likely than not" that by the end of 2013, terrorists would attack somewhere in the world using a chemical, biological, or nuclear weapon. (slate.com)
  • Compared to other types of weapons (nuclear, chemical or conventional), biological weapons are unique in their diversity. (fas.org)
  • This occurred despite the fact that the USSR was a signatory to the 1925 Geneva Convention, which banned both chemical and biological weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • November 1991: South Korean President Roh Tae Woo declares that his country will renounce the manufacture, possession, and use of nuclear and chemical weapons and calls upon North Korea to do the same. (wisconsinproject.org)
  • Military and paramilitary personnel as well as civilians are to participate in regular nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons defense drills. (wisconsinproject.org)
  • January 1993: A representative of North Korea's Foreign Ministry states that North Korea "has never had any chemical weapons" and accuses South Korea of deploying chemical weapons along the demilitarized zone. (wisconsinproject.org)
  • May 1993: North Korea conducts tests of a Scud-type missile, which is thought to be capable of carrying a chemical weapon payload. (wisconsinproject.org)
  • The activist describes this as one of North Korea's largest chemical weapons plants. (wisconsinproject.org)
  • A translation of the document states that the prisoner had been transported "for the purpose of human experimentation of liquid gas of chemical weapon [sic. (wisconsinproject.org)
  • Biological weapons now pose a far greater threat than their chemical or nuclear counterparts, according to a British Medical Association report. (aljazeera.com)
  • Much has been made of the fact that the Japanese military during WWII resorted to the use of biological and chemical weapons, in violation of international law. (yorku.ca)
  • Among other things cited here is an approving letter of 1953 from President Harry S. Truman suggesting "that had the war in the Pacific not ended by mid-August 1945, [Truman] would have used biological as well as chemical weapons. (yorku.ca)
  • These include chemical and biological weapons, the immunizations and preventive treatments used to protect against them, smoke from oil well fires, exposure to depleted uranium, and diseases endemic to the Arabian peninsula. (encyclopedia.com)
  • What I believe the assessed intelligence has established beyond doubt is that Saddam has continued to produce chemical and biological weapons, that he continues in his efforts to develop nuclear weapons, and that he has been able to extend the range of his ballistic missile programme. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Saddam has used chemical weapons, not only against an enemy state, but against his own people. (globalsecurity.org)
  • 1. Under Saddam Hussein Iraq developed chemical and biological weapons, acquired missiles allowing it to attack neighbouring countries with these weapons and persistently tried to develop a nuclear bomb. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Pentagon
  • when the Korean War broke out, the U.S. embarked on an ambitious program to produce offensive biological weapons, despite Pentagon protestations that the research was geared toward defensive weaponry. (yorku.ca)
  • In October 1999, the U.S. Pentagon released a report that hypothesized that an experimental drug known as pyriostigmine bromide, or PB, might be linked to the physical symptoms manifested in Gulf War Syndrome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • offensive
  • In the 1990s, Boris Yeltsin admitted to an offensive bio-weapons program as well as to the true nature of the Sverdlovsk biological weapons accident of 1979, which had resulted in the deaths of at least 64 people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, their book shows in alarming detail how the United States was doggedly developing an array of biological weapons for offensive purposes at a time when the public was being told the arsenal was purely defensive. (yorku.ca)
  • preventive
  • One of possible directions of search of alternative means in treatment and preventive maintenance Anthrax infections can be use of specific bacteriophage preparations and antibodies for intravenous introduction. (bio.su)
  • inspectors
  • On Feb. 5, 2003, hours before U.S. Secretary of State Colin L. Powell addressed the United Nations, weapons inspectors, left, and members of the Iraqi National Monitoring Directorate investigated storage facilities at Tuwaitha, the main site of Iraq s former nuclear weapons program in Baghdad. (latimes.com)
  • U.N. inspectors searched this now-abandoned grain-handling facility in Djerf al Nadaf, where Curveball had said he helped install equipment on trucks to make biological agents. (latimes.com)
  • I also believe that, as stated in the document, Saddam will now do his utmost to try to conceal his weapons from UN inspectors. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Ivins
  • Ivins was a blabbermouth, so he couldn't have sent the anthrax letters without telling other people about it. (blogspot.com)
  • Note by Washington's Blog: Indeed, handwriting analysis failed to link Ivins to the anthrax letters. (washingtonsblog.com)
  • The evidence "established that Dr. Ivins, alone, mailed the anthrax letters," the Justice summary stated. (washingtonsblog.com)
  • The FBI admits that about 400 people may have had access to Ivins' RMR-1029 anthrax preparation, but asserts all were "ruled out" as lone perpetrators. (washingtonsblog.com)
  • The U.N. biologist mentioned above also said that the equipment to make such high-tech anthrax does not exist at Fort Detrick, where Ivins worked . (washingtonsblog.com)
  • Iraq
  • We know from intelligence that Iraq has continued to produce biological warfare agents. (grassrootspeace.org)
  • Iraq also has its own engineering capability to design and construct biological agent associated fermenters, centrifuges, sprayer dryers and other equipment and is judged to be self-sufficient in the technology required to produce biological weapons. (grassrootspeace.org)
  • United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) experts concluded that Iraq's declarations on biological agents vastly understated the extent of its program, and that Iraq actually produced two to four times the amount of most agents, including anthrax and botulinim toxin, than it had declared. (grassrootspeace.org)
  • George J. Tenet was director of the CIA when the U.S. insisted that Iraq had an active biological weapons program. (latimes.com)
  • Powell used a drawing to show the U.N. Security Council that Iraq had a mobile weapons lab. (latimes.com)
  • President Bush used information from Curveball to charge in his 2003 State of the Union address that Iraq had "mobile biological weapons labs" designed to produce "germ warfare agents. (latimes.com)
  • According to the Germans, President Bush mischaracterized Curveball's information when he warned before the war that Iraq had at least seven mobile factories brewing biological poisons. (latimes.com)
  • If nothing else, Canadian historian Endicott and American historian Hagerman will make thoughtful readers see the irony in the U.S. government's ongoing showdown with Iraq over biological weapons. (yorku.ca)
  • advisor
  • Gen. Amir Saadi, an advisor to Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, said that Powell s U.N. speech was a stunt, and he denied that the country had an illegal weapons program. (latimes.com)
  • biochemical
  • Research of biological and biochemical properties of phages, in particular molecular aspects receptor specificity, can provide a new direction in phagotherapy. (bio.su)
  • disease
  • Anthrax is a per-acute, acute or sub-acute disease, primarily affecting herbivores as a soil-borne infection, but also capable of affecting other mammals, including man, and occasionally birds. (au-ibar.org)
  • The name 'anthrax' is derived from the Greek anthrakos, meaning coal, referring to the characteristic eschar in the human cutaneous form of the disease. (au-ibar.org)
  • Anthrax is a notifiable disease in most countries and annual notifications are forwarded by many countries to the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) in Paris where they are recorded as a multiple species listed disease. (au-ibar.org)
  • During the war, Chinese officials learned of mysterious outbreaks of disease after some U.S. raids and began to suspect that biological weapons were being used. (yorku.ca)
  • Characterizing a 'new' disease: epizootic and epidemic anthrax, 1769-1780. (canarydatabase.org)