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  • genes
  • Among these, causative genes for inherited diseases of the retina have been identified by positional cloning or candidate gene approaches. (jneurosci.org)
  • In theory, the oocyte's cytoplasm would reprogram the transferred nucleus by silencing all the somatic cell genes and activating the embryonic ones. (sciencemag.org)
  • The high structural stability of the cloned Synechocystis genome was closely associated with the symmetry of the bacterial genome structure of the DNA replication origin ( oriC ) and its termination ( terC ) and the exclusivity of Synechocystis ribosomal RNA operon genes ( rrnA and rrnB ). (pnas.org)
  • Although DNA cloning is one of the most basic tools used in biology to understand genes and gene function(s), cloning is not considered representative of HGT because the process occurs under well regulated laboratory conditions. (pnas.org)
  • Each of the clones expressed the osteoclast marker genes TRAP and cathepsin-K mRNA with RANKL treatment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1996). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of T cell-restricted genes, and signatures for different T cell responses, using a comprehensive collection of microarray datasets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammary
  • Scottish embryologist Ian Wilmut and his colleagues had taken a mammary gland cell from a six-year-old Scottish Finn Dorset ewe and, via a process known as "nuclear transfer," succeeded in placing the genetic material from that cell into a hollowed-out egg cell from a Scottish Blackface sheep. (apologeticspress.org)
  • sheep
  • They reported their results in the article 'Sheep Cloned by Nuclear Transfer from a Cultured Cell Line' in March 1996. (asu.edu)
  • That zygote-which then contained the full complement of 54 chromosomes (as if it had been fertilized by a sperm cell)-was placed into the uterus of a second Scottish Blackface sheep that served as a surrogate mother. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Like most tissues, sheep udder tissue contains a huge number of mature, differentiated cells, along with a handful of adult stem cells. (seedmagazine.com)
  • gene
  • The human Sac3 cDNA that predicts a 907 aminoacid protein and gene localization to chromosome 6 has been reported in 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroepithelial cell-transforming gene 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NET1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MDC1 gene encodes the MDC1 nuclear protein which is part of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway, the mechanism through which eukaryotic cells respond to damaged DNA, specifically DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) that are caused by ionizing radiation or chemical clastogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Finally, recent results provide novel and important guidance for manipulating autoreactive T-cell responses against β-cell antigens. (springer.com)
  • mice
  • Results obtained with transgenic mice acknowledge proinsulin's unique role in triggering autoimmunity and suggest that other β-cell proteins are recognized as a result of epitope spreading, at least in the nonobese diabetic mouse. (springer.com)
  • The pancreatic islet infiltrate in diabetic mice consists of CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells, and B cells, similar to diabetic nontransgenic NOD mice. (rupress.org)
  • To elucidate the relative importance of each of the subsets of cells, the NOD-rat insulin promoter (RIP)-B7-1 animals were crossed with NOD.β2microglobulin −/− mice which lack major histocompatibility complex class I molecules and are deficient in peripheral CD8 T cells, NOD.CD4 −/− mice which lack T cells expressing CD4, and NOD.μMT −/− mice which lack B220-positive B cells. (rupress.org)
  • These experiments showed that both CD4 and CD8 T cells were necessary for the accelerated onset of diabetes, but that B cells, which are needed for diabetes to occur in normal NOD mice, are not required. (rupress.org)
  • consequently, these mice have very poor development of CD8 T cells. (rupress.org)
  • The SCNT-hES-1 cells displayed typical ES cell morphology and cell surface markers and were capable of differentiating into embryoid bodies in vitro and of forming teratomas in vivo containing cell derivatives from all three embryonic germ layers in severe combined immunodeficient mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Stem cells might not be the easiest way to clone animals: That's what researchers at the University of Connecticut are saying after they recently cloned mice from fully differentiated blood cells. (seedmagazine.com)
  • Inhibition or loss of MDC1 protein through studies with siRNA on human cells or knockout studies in mice have shown several defects at both the cellular and organismal level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knock out MDC1 mice cells and silenced human cells were radiosensitive, failed to initiate Intra-S phase and G2/M checkpoints, failed to produce ionizing radiation-induced foci had poor phosphorylation by the DRR kinases (ATM, CHK1, CHK2), defects in homologous recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • IL-18 is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine produced by monocytes/macrophages lineage as well as epithelial cells, such as human keratinocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CCR5 is predominantly expressed on T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, eosinophils, microglia and a subpopulation of ether breast or prostate cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • Nineteen European countries including France, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Germany signed a treaty in 1998 prohibiting human cloning (DuPrau 77). (scribd.com)
  • Induction
  • Sodium chloride drives autoimmune disease by the induction of pathogenic TH17 cells. (yale.edu)
  • Moreover, induction by retinoic acid results in inhibition of cell growth and enhanced production of noradrenaline from SH-SY5Y cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • This bind results in gp41, the other protein product of gp160, to be released from its metastable conformation and insert itself into the membrane of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The suggested role for this protein is in tumorigenesis of renal cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • MDC1 protein is a regulator of the Intra-S phase and the G2/M cell cycle checkpoints and recruits repair proteins to the site of DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is involved in determining cell survival fate in association with tumor suppressor protein p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is required to activate the intra-S phase and G2/M phase cell cycle checkpoints in response to DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies on lung cancer cell lines (A549 cells) showed an increase in apoptosis in response to genotoxic agents when MDC1 protein levels were reduced with siRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxic T cel
  • Apoptosis plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of a functional immune system by ensuring the timely self-destruction of autoreactive immature and mature lymphocytes as well as any emerging target neoplastic cells by cytotoxic T cells. (google.com)
  • mammalian
  • The February 27, 1997 issue of Nature reported it in a mundanely titled article, "Viable Offspring Derived from Fetal and Adult Mammalian Cells. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The DDR of mammalian cells is made up of kinases, and mediator/adaptors factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammalian cells the DRR is a network of pathways made up of proteins that function as either kinases, or and mediator/adaptors that recruit the kinases to their phosphorylation targets, these factors work together to detect DNA damage, and signal the repair mechanism as well as activating cell cycle checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer Research
  • Subsequently, he moved as a postdoctoral researcher to the Center for Biological Research (CIB-CSIC, 1990-1993) and The German Center of Cancer Research (DKFZ, 1993-1996). (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • Apoptosis is a common mode of eukaryotic cell death which is triggered by an inducible cascade of biochemical events leading to activation of endonucleases that cleave the nuclear DNA into oligonucleosome-length fragments. (google.com)
  • Eukaryotic Cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The target DNA is guided in the BGM vector by simultaneous homologous recombination at two small flanking DNAs called landing pad sequences (LPS), integrated at the BGM cloning locus before cloning. (pnas.org)
  • bone
  • Bone resorbing osteoclasts are terminally differentiated polykaryons of the monocyte/macrophage lineage that are specialized cells responsible for physiological bone resorption as well as pathologic bone loss. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The original cell line, called SK-N-SH, from which it was subcloned was isolated from a bone marrow biopsy taken from a four-year-old female with neuroblastoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • SH-SY5Y was cloned from a bone marrow biopsy derived line called SK-N-SH and first reported in 1973. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • However, the cell line is appreciated to be N-type (neuronal), given its morphology and the ability to differentiate the cells into along the neuronal lineage (in contrast to the S-type SH-EP subcloned cell line, also derived from SK-N-SH). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1921 Otto Loewi provided the first substantial evidence that neuronal communication with target cells occurred via chemical synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology has recently been used to generate animals with a common genetic composition. (sciencemag.org)
  • After continuous proliferation for more than 70 passages, SCNT-hES-1 cells maintained normal karyotypes and were genetically identical to the somatic nuclear donor cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • cellular
  • In addition to these abnormalities, clonal T-cell populations in CTCL produce Th2 cytokines ( 9 - 11 ) and this may be associated with reduced T-cell-mediated cellular immune responses and diminished natural killer cell activity ( 12 ) that are also identified as features of the immunosuppression of this disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In order to establish such an antiviral state, IKBKE forms several different complexes whose composition depends on the type of cell and cellular stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Cloning the whole 3.5-megabase (Mb) genome of the photosynthetic bacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 into the 4.2-Mb genome of the mesophilic bacterium Bacillus subtilis 168 resulted in a 7.7-Mb composite genome. (pnas.org)
  • We succeeded in such unprecedented large-size cloning by progressively assembling and editing contiguous DNA regions that cover the entire Synechocystis genome. (pnas.org)
  • The strain containing the two sets of genome grew only in the B. subtilis culture medium where all of the cloning procedures were carried out. (pnas.org)
  • Given the significant diversity in genome structure observed upon horizontal DNA transfer in nature, our stable laboratory-generated composite genome raised fundamental questions concerning two complete genomes in one cell. (pnas.org)
  • Our megasize DNA cloning method, designated megacloning, may be generally applicable to other genomes or genome loci of free-living organisms. (pnas.org)
  • We termed the cloning vehicle BGM (for B. subtilis genome) vector and demonstrated the successful reconstruction of long contiguous DNAs ( 12 - 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • We applied this method in the complete cloning of the whole 3.5-Mb genome of the photosynthetic bacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 ( 17 ) into the 4.2-Mb genome of the mesophilic bacterium B. subtilis 168 ( Fig. 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • It was thought that as cells become more specialized, the genome would become much more restricted, and less plastic," he said. (seedmagazine.com)
  • apoptosis
  • Several of the biochemical events that contribute to apoptotic cell death as well as both positive and negative regulators of apoptosis have recently been identified (Whyllie A., et al. (google.com)
  • Human cells with silenced MDC1 also displayed random plasmid integration, reduced apoptosis, and slowed mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • reprogram
  • The experiments indicated how to reprogram nuclei from differentiated cells to produce live offspring, and that a single population of differentiated cells could produce multiple offspring. (asu.edu)
  • vitro
  • SH-SY5Y cells can spontaneously interconvert between two phenotypes in vitro, the neuroblast-like cells and the Epithelial like cells, although the mechanisms underlying this process are not understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown to regulate cell motility and axonal outgrowth in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • motility
  • Cnn3 knockdown in primary fibroblasts impaired stress fiber formation, resulting in decreased cell motility and contractile ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • elongation
  • We offer such elongation-coupled cloning in the BGM vector, hereafter called inchworm elongation (IWe), as an elegant alternative to current cloning methods. (pnas.org)
  • Proteins
  • Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization. (rupress.org)
  • Clathrin coated vesicles enable neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal membranes and across the membranes of other types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins and other transmembrane 4 superfamily proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • In polarized epithelial cells, syntaxin 3 localizes to the apical plasma membrane and is involved in membrane fusion of apical trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • For example, epithelial cells face the outside world or lumen of an organ on one side, and the interstitial environment and basement membrane on the other. (rupress.org)
  • Epithelial cells generally contain at least two different plasma membrane syntaxins. (rupress.org)
  • The clear distinction between apical and basolateral trafficking pathways makes epithelial cells a good system in which to test the central prediction of the SNARE hypothesis on their contribution to the overall specificity of trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • Several cell types or tissues, e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, cardiac tissue, gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells, and epithelial cells of some tissues normally do not express LECT2 but do so under a variety of disease conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which are taken up by the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis and processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pieces of the antigen (which are now known as antigenic peptides ) are loaded onto MHC II molecules, and presented on its extracellular surface to CD4+ T cells (sometimes called T helper cells ). (wikipedia.org)
  • These T cells bind to the MHC II-antigen molecule and cause activation of the B cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they differentiate to specific cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process favors, by selection for the ability to bind antigen with higher affinity, the activation and growth of B cell clones able to secrete antibodies of higher affinity for the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike their precursors, they cannot switch antibody classes , cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer display significant quantities of immunoglobulin on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic cells
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological
  • Journal of Biological Chemistry 271:12165-12171, 1996. (dentisty.org)
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • This represented the first case where the position of a gene in the chromosome had demonstrable biological significance, and prompted Nasmyth to abandon work on the cell cycle for a time and concentrate instead on studying gene silencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • We conclude that millicurrent stimulation of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes cultivated in a 3 D collagen gel and of osteochondral explants directly influences cell metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Effects of hormones and cytokines on stimulation of adenylate cyclase and intracellular calcium concentration in human and canine periodontal ligament cells. (dentisty.org)
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) after a long latent period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • migration
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of its mode of action, under all circumstances CD34, and its relatives podocalyxin and endoglycan, facilitates cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Invitrogen
  • MCF-7 cells had Danshensu been passaged onto coverslips in 500 l Opti-MEM (Invitrogen) 1 day before transfection and reached about 40C50% confluence during transfection. (cancercurehere.com)
  • expression
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transient co-transfection experiments using an hTR promoter luciferase reporter construct show that hTR promoter activity is inhibited by over-expression of mdm2 in 5637 bladder carcinoma cells (p53 and pRB negative, low mdm2). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Elucidation of new regulators affecting hTR basal promoter activity in cancer cells provides a basis for future studies aimed at improving our understanding of the differential hTR expression between normal and cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such inactivation of Tax expression is considered to allow ATL cells to escape from the host immune system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, because of their CD34+ expression, such undifferentiated cells can be sorted out. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, its expression in these cells is extremely low or undetectable even though these cells express very high levels of LECT2 mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursors
  • However, counting CD34+ mononuclear cells may overestimate myeloid blasts in bone marrow smears due to hematogones (B lymphocyte precursors) and CD34+ megakaryocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Plasma cells , also called plasma B cells , plasmocytes , plasmacytes , or effector B cells , are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts (or "immature plasma cells"), and eventually plasma cells, and begin producing large volumes of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmablasts secrete more antibodies than B cells, but less than plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They secrete high levels of antibodies, ranging from hundreds to thousands of antibodies per second per cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, plasma cells will likely secrete IgG3 antibodies if they matured in the presence of the cytokine interferon-gamma . (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are used to quantify and purify hematopoietic progenitor stem cells for research and for clinical bone marrow transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • These cells exhibit functional and structural asymmetry in their apical and basolateral plasma membranes that is essential to their function. (rupress.org)
  • lineage
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • In Xenopus , the germline is specified through the inheritance of germ plasm formed during oogenesis and asymmetrically segregated into the future germ cell lineage. (biologists.org)
  • The most immature blood cell that is considered of plasma cell lineage is the plasmablast . (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the nine other distinct FABPs that have been identified, H-FABP is involved in active fatty acid metabolism where it transports fatty acids from the cell membrane to mitochondria for oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • The majority of cell types in multicellular organisms are polarized and face two different environments. (rupress.org)
  • Nanos is expressed in multipotent cells, stem cells and primordial germ cells (PGCs) of organisms as diverse as jellyfish and humans. (biologists.org)
  • vivo
  • Recognition and analysis of these transient cell populations has been hampered by technical difficulties in accessing them in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • membranes
  • Syntaxins 3 and 4 localize to the apical and basolateral plasma membranes, respectively, in virtually all epithelial cell types investigated to date. (rupress.org)
  • neural
  • Probably involved in the regulatory networks that define neural crest cell fate specification and determine mesoderm cell lineages in mammals. (genecards.org)
  • lymph nodes
  • Upon stimulation by a T cell, which usually occurs in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen and lymph nodes , the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification
  • In Mitchison's lab he made substantial contributions to the study of the cell cycle in fission yeast isolating and characterising cell cycle mutants and the first identification of a gene product (DNA ligase) in these mutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • This discovery changed the current thinking about cancer from a model wherein cancer is caused by a foreign substance (a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • Recently they have been shown to reside for much longer periods in the bone marrow as long-lived plasma cells (LLPC). (wikipedia.org)
  • a secondary response produces longer-lived cells that produce IgG and IgA, and frequently travel to the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may also mediate the attachment of stem cells to bone marrow extracellular matrix or directly to stromal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Golgi
  • Plasma cell with distinct clear perinuclear region of the cytoplasm containing a large number of Golgi bodies . (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • citation needed] CD34 is expressed in roughly 20% of murine hematopoietic stem cells, and can be stimulated and reversed. (wikipedia.org)
  • i.e., they are multipotential hemopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injection of CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells has been clinically applied to treat various diseases including Spinal Cord Injury, Liver Cirrhosis and Peripheral Vascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • The role of HAP1 in HD pathogenesis may involve aberration of cell cycle processes, as high immunostaining of HAP1 during the cell cycle has been observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • 2000 ). Because GadA and GadB are intracellular enzymes, and most MSG are out of the cells, the recombinant E. coli cells have to be specially treated by sonication, ethyl acetate, toluene, and thermal activation to increase the permeability (Zhao et al. (springeropen.com)