Zygomatic Fractures: Fractures of the zygoma.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Trismus: Spasmodic contraction of the masseter muscle resulting in forceful jaw closure. This may be seen with a variety of diseases, including TETANUS, as a complication of radiation therapy, trauma, or in association with neoplastic conditions.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Trigeminal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome: A chromosomal disorder characterized by MENTAL RETARDATION, broad thumbs, webbing of fingers and toes, beaked nose, short upper lip, pouting lower lip, agenesis of corpus callosum, large foramen magnum, keloid formation, pulmonary stenosis, vertebral anomalies, chest wall anomalies, sleep apnea, and megacolon. The disease has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and is associated with deletions of the short arm of chromosome 16 (16p13.3).CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases: Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Core Binding Factor Alpha 3 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Maxillofacial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the face and jaw (either upper, lower, or both).Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.BooksOral Fistula: An abnormal passage within the mouth communicating between two or more anatomical structures.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Mandibular Fractures: Fractures of the lower jaw.Saudi ArabiaSkull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Maxillary Fractures: Fractures of the upper jaw.Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Epistaxis: Bleeding from the nose.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Mouth Protectors: Devices or pieces of equipment placed in or around the mouth or attached to instruments to protect the external or internal tissues of the mouth and the teeth.Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.DislocationsBone Wires: Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Acromioclavicular Joint: The gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the CLAVICLE and the inner margin of the acromion process of the SCAPULA.