Living Wills: Written, witnessed declarations in which persons request that if they become disabled beyond reasonable expectation of recovery, they be allowed to die rather than be kept alive by extraordinary means. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Wills: Legal documents that are declarations of individuals' wishes regarding the disposal of their property or estate after death; esp: written instruments, legally executed, by which dispositions are made of estates. LIVING WILLS are written declarations regarding prolongation of life by extraordinary means.Right to Die: The right of the patient or the patient's representative to make decisions with regard to the patient's dying.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Advance Directives: Declarations by patients, made in advance of a situation in which they may be incompetent to decide about their own care, stating their treatment preferences or authorizing a third party to make decisions for them. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Attitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Terminal Care: Medical and nursing care of patients in the terminal stage of an illness.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Speech-Language Pathology: The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.Speech Therapy: Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.Voice Quality: That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.HandbooksDeglutition Disorders: Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.Audiology: The study of hearing and hearing impairment.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Williams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.EnglandPassiflora: A plant genus of the family Passifloraceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are vines with ornamental flowers and edible fruit.Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Gulf of Mexico: A body of water located at the southeastern corner of North America. It is bordered by the states to the north of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas; by five Mexican states to the west: Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan; and by Cuba to the southeast.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.MexicoPolitics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Extramarital Relations: Voluntary SEXUAL INTERCOURSE between a married person and someone other than the SPOUSE.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.EuropeSubject Headings: Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.Motorcycles: Two-wheeled, engine-driven vehicles.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Parkinson Disease, Postencephalitic: Parkinsonism following encephalitis, historically seen as a sequella of encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo Encephalitis). The early age of onset, the rapid progression of symptoms followed by stabilization, and the presence of a variety of other neurological disorders (e.g., sociopathic behavior; TICS; MUSCLE SPASMS; oculogyric crises; hyperphagia; and bizarre movements) distinguish this condition from primary PARKINSON DISEASE. Pathologic features include neuronal loss and gliosis concentrated in the MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMUS; and HYPOTHALAMUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p754)World War I: Global conflict primarily fought on European continent, that occurred between 1914 and 1918.Lethargy: A general state of sluggishness, listless, or uninterested, with being tired, and having difficulty concentrating and doing simple tasks. It may be related to DEPRESSION or DRUG ADDICTION.Nobel PrizeWorld War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.BooksHospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Genealogy and HeraldryVeterans Disability Claims: Disorders claimed as a result of military service.Contracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Employee Performance Appraisal: The assessment of the functioning of an employee in relation to work.Employment, Supported: Paid work for mentally or physically disabled persons, taking place in regular or normal work settings. It may be competitive employment (work that pays minimum wage) or employment with subminimal wages in individualized or group placement situations. It is intended for persons with severe disabilities who require a range of support services to maintain employment. Supported employment differs from SHELTERED WORKSHOPS in that work in the latter takes place in a controlled working environment. Federal regulations are authorized and administered by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.