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Vulvar Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone: A disease of bone marked by thinning of the cortex by fibrous tissue containing bony spicules, producing pain, disability, and gradually increasing deformity. Only one bone may be involved (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, MONOSTOTIC) or several (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, POLYOSTOTIC).Ectodermal Dysplasia: A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Bone Diseases, DevelopmentalUterine Cervical Dysplasia: Abnormal development of immature squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS of the UTERINE CERVIX, a term used to describe premalignant cytological changes in the cervical EPITHELIUM. These atypical cells do not penetrate the epithelial BASEMENT MEMBRANE.Fibromuscular Dysplasia: An idiopathic, segmental, nonatheromatous disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to STENOSIS of small and medium-sized arteries. There is true proliferation of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and fibrous tissue. Fibromuscular dysplasia lesions are smooth stenosis and occur most often in the renal and carotid arteries. They may also occur in other peripheral arteries of the extremity.Osteochondrodysplasias: Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.Fibrous Dysplasia, Monostotic: FIBROUS DYSPLASIA OF BONE involving only one bone.Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic: FIBROUS DYSPLASIA OF BONE affecting several bones. When melanotic pigmentation (CAFE-AU-LAIT SPOTS) and multiple endocrine hyperfunction are additionally associated it is referred to as Albright syndrome.Hip Dysplasia, Canine: A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.Cleidocranial Dysplasia: Autosomal dominant syndrome in which there is delayed closing of the CRANIAL FONTANELLES; complete or partial absence of the collarbones (CLAVICLES); wide PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; short middle phalanges of the fifth fingers; and dental and vertebral anomalies.Retinal Dysplasia: Congenital, often bilateral, retinal abnormality characterized by the arrangement of outer nuclear retinal cells in a palisading or radiating pattern surrounding a central ocular space. This disorder is sometimes hereditary.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Hip Dislocation, Congenital: Congenital dislocation of the hip generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, acetabular dysplasia, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is more common in females than in males.Thanatophoric Dysplasia: A severe form of neonatal dwarfism with very short limbs. All cases have died at birth or later in the neonatal period.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Barrett Esophagus: A condition with damage to the lining of the lower ESOPHAGUS resulting from chronic acid reflux (ESOPHAGITIS, REFLUX). Through the process of metaplasia, the squamous cells are replaced by a columnar epithelium with cells resembling those of the INTESTINE or the salmon-pink mucosa of the STOMACH. Barrett's columnar epithelium is a marker for severe reflux and precursor to ADENOCARCINOMA of the esophagus.Ectodermal Dysplasia 1, Anhidrotic: An X-linked form of ectodermal dysplasia which results from mutations of the gene encoding ECTODYSPLASIN.Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia: A congenital cardiomyopathy that is characterized by infiltration of adipose and fibrous tissue into the RIGHT VENTRICLE wall and loss of myocardial cells. Primary injuries usually are at the free wall of right ventricular and right atria resulting in ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias.Malformations of Cortical Development: Abnormalities in the development of the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These include malformations arising from abnormal neuronal and glial CELL PROLIFERATION or APOPTOSIS (Group I); abnormal neuronal migration (Group II); and abnormal establishment of cortical organization (Group III). Many INBORN METABOLIC BRAIN DISORDERS affecting CNS formation are often associated with cortical malformations. They are common causes of EPILEPSY and developmental delay.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Septo-Optic Dysplasia: A condition resulting from congenital malformations involving the brain. The syndrome of septo-optic dysplasia combines hypoplasia or agenesis of the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM and the OPTIC NERVE. The extent of the abnormalities can vary. Septo-optic dysplasia is often associated with abnormalities of the hypothalamic and other diencephalic structures, and HYPOPITUITARISM.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Campomelic Dysplasia: A congenital disorder of CHONDROGENESIS and OSTEOGENESIS characterized by hypoplasia of endochondral bones. In most cases there is a curvature of the long bones especially the TIBIA with dimpling of the skin over the bowed areas, malformation of the pelvis and spine, 11 pairs of ribs, hypoplastic scapulae, club feet, micrognathia, CLEFT PALATE, tracheobronchomalacia, and in some patients male-to-female sex reversal (SEX REVERSAL, GONADAL). Most patients die in the neonatal period of respiratory distress. Campomelic dysplasia is associated with haploinsufficiency of the SOX9 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR gene.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Dentin Dysplasia: An apparently hereditary disorder of dentin formation, marked by a normal appearance of coronal dentin associated with pulpal obliteration, faulty root formation, and a tendency for peripheral lesions without obvious cause. (From Dorland, 27th ed)DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Hypohidrosis: Abnormally diminished or absent perspiration. Both generalized and segmented (reduced or absent sweating in circumscribed locations) forms of the disease are usually associated with other underlying conditions.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Dwarfism: A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Acetabulum: The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue: Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.Neoplasms, Plasma Cell: Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Esophagoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the esophagus.Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Musculoskeletal Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities and deformities of the musculoskeletal system.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Abnormalities, MultipleRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cystadenoma, Mucinous: A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Ectodysplasins: Transmembrane proteins belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that play an essential role in the normal development of several ectodermally derived organs. Several isoforms of the ectodysplasins exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the MRNA for the protein. The isoforms ectodysplasin A1 and ectodysplasin A2 are considered biologically active and each bind distinct ECTODYSPLASIN RECEPTORS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of ectodysplasin result in ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA 1, ANHIDROTIC.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Leukoplakia, Oral: A white patch seen on the oral mucosa. It is considered a premalignant condition and is often tobacco-induced. When evidence of Epstein-Barr virus is present, the condition is called hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Nails, Malformed: Deformities in nail structure or appearance, including hypertrophy, splitting, clubbing, furrowing, etc. Genetic diseases such as PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA can result in malformed nails.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue: Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous: A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)Fibroma, Ossifying: A benign central bone tumor, usually of the jaws (especially the mandible), composed of fibrous connective tissue within which bone is formed.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Achondroplasia: An autosomal dominant disorder that is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, GENU VARUM, and trident hand. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#100800, April 20, 2001)Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage: Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.Hip Dislocation: Displacement of the femur bone from its normal position at the HIP JOINT.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Sweat Gland NeoplasmsMaxillary Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Palatal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Acro-Osteolysis: A condition with congenital and acquired forms causing recurrent ulcers in the fingers and toes. The congenital form exhibits autosomal dominant inheritance; the acquired form is found in workers who handle VINYL CHLORIDE. When acro-osteolysis is accompanied by generalized OSTEOPOROSIS and skull deformations, it is called HAJDU-CHENEY SYNDROME.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cystadenocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)