Videodisc Recording: The storing of visual and usually sound signals on discs for later reproduction on a television screen or monitor.Library Surveys: Collection and analysis of data pertaining to operations of a particular library, library system, or group of independent libraries, with recommendations for improvement and/or ordered plans for further development.Microcomputers: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Color Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Starlings: The family Sturnidae, in the order PASSERIFORMES. The starling family also includes mynahs and oxpeckers.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Correspondence as Topic: Communication between persons or between institutions or organizations by an exchange of letters. Its use in indexing and cataloging will generally figure in historical and biographical material.High Vocal Center: Nucleus in the NEOSTRIATUM of bird brains that sends signals for song production and receives auditory input. In some adult SONGBIRDS, research has shown that the size of this nucleus changes seasonally and that it exhibits neurogenesis.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Transistors, Electronic: Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.Amplifiers, Electronic: Electronic devices that increase the magnitude of a signal's power level or current.Electromagnetic Phenomena: Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional: Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)