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Vertical Dimension: The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)Denture, Complete, Lower: A complete denture replacing all the natural mandibular teeth and associated structures. It is completely supported by the oral tissue and underlying mandibular bone.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Centric Relation: The location of the maxillary and the mandibular condyles when they are in their most posterior and superior positions in their fossae of the temporomandibular joint.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Denture, Complete: A denture replacing all natural teeth and associated structures in both the maxilla and mandible.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Denture Design: The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.Maxillofacial Development: The process of growth and differentiation of the jaws and face.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Nasal Bone: Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.Malocclusion, Angle Class II: Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).Chin: The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.Orthodontic Appliance Design: The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Sella Turcica: A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Fractals: Patterns (real or mathematical) which look similar at different scales, for example the network of airways in the lung which shows similar branching patterns at progressively higher magnifications. Natural fractals are self-similar across a finite range of scales while mathematical fractals are the same across an infinite range. Many natural, including biological, structures are fractal (or fractal-like). Fractals are related to "chaos" (see NONLINEAR DYNAMICS) in that chaotic processes can produce fractal structures in nature, and appropriate representations of chaotic processes usually reveal self-similarity over time.