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Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Ventilator Weaning: Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation: Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.High-Frequency Ventilation: Ventilatory support system using frequencies from 60-900 cycles/min or more. Three types of systems have been distinguished on the basis of rates, volumes, and the system used. They are high frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV); HIGH-FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION; (HFJV); and high-frequency oscillation (HFO).Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.High-Frequency Jet Ventilation: Respiratory support system used primarily with rates of about 100 to 200/min with volumes of from about one to three times predicted anatomic dead space. Used to treat respiratory failure and maintain ventilation under severe circumstances.Noninvasive Ventilation: Techniques for administering artificial respiration without the need for INTRATRACHEAL INTUBATION.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Ventilators, Negative-Pressure: Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury: Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated: Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Respiratory Rate: The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Respiratory Dead Space: That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Respiratory Care Units: The hospital unit in which patients with respiratory conditions requiring special attention receive intensive medical care and surveillance.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Tracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Mass Casualty Incidents: Events that overwhelm the resources of local HOSPITALS and health care providers. They are likely to impose a sustained demand for HEALTH SERVICES rather than the short, intense peak customary with smaller scale disasters.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Intermittent Positive-Pressure Breathing: Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase of spontaneous respiration.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Equipment Failure: Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Barotrauma: Injury following pressure changes; includes injury to the eustachian tube, ear drum, lung and stomach.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Capnography: Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Interactive Ventilatory Support: Mechanical ventilation delivered to match the patient's efforts in breathing as detected by the interactive ventilation device.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Respiratory Paralysis: Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.Intensive Care Units, Pediatric: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.Prone Position: The posture of an individual lying face down.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.One-Lung Ventilation: Techniques for supplying artificial respiration to a single lung.Suction: The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.Inspiratory Capacity: The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Maximal Voluntary Ventilation: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be breathed in and blown out over a sustained interval such as 15 or 20 seconds. Common abbreviations are MVV and MBC.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Data Display: The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.ManikinsAerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Infant, Premature, DiseasesContinuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Transportation of Patients: Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Man-Machine Systems: A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Hyaline Membrane Disease: A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Insufflation: The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.Chest Wall Oscillation: A respiratory support system used to remove mucus and clear airway by oscillating pressure on the chest.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Thoracic Wall: The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.Dimensional Measurement Accuracy: The closeness of a determined value of a physical dimension to the actual value.Nursing, Team: Coordination of nursing services by various nursing care personnel under the leadership of a professional nurse. The team may consist of a professional nurse, nurses' aides, and the practical nurse.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Pneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Krypton Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of krypton that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Kr atoms with atomic weights 74-77, 79, 81, 85, and 87-94 are radioactive krypton isotopes.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Krypton: A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.Positive-Pressure Respiration, Intrinsic: Non-therapeutic positive end-expiratory pressure occurring frequently in patients with severe airway obstruction. It can appear with or without the administration of external positive end-expiratory pressure (POSITIVE-PRESSURE RESPIRATION). It presents an important load on the inspiratory muscles which are operating at a mechanical disadvantage due to hyperinflation. Auto-PEEP may cause profound hypotension that should be treated by intravascular volume expansion, increasing the time for expiration, and/or changing from assist mode to intermittent mandatory ventilation mode. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1127)Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Thoracic Diseases: Disorders affecting the organs of the thorax.Airway Extubation: Removal of an endotracheal tube from the patient.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Pleural Cavity: Paired but separate cavity within the THORACIC CAVITY. It consists of the space between the parietal and visceral PLEURA and normally contains a capillary layer of serous fluid that lubricates the pleural surfaces.Intensive Care, Neonatal: Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Doxapram: A central respiratory stimulant with a brief duration of action. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p1225)Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Pasteurization: Treatment of food with physical methods such as heat, high pressure, radiation, or electric current to destroy organisms that cause disease or food spoilage.Middle Ear Ventilation: Ventilation of the middle ear in the treatment of secretory (serous) OTITIS MEDIA, usually by placement of tubes or grommets which pierce the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Fluorocarbons: Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.APACHE: An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.TracheitisQuadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Oxygenators, Membrane: Devices in which blood and oxygen are separated by a semipermeable membrane, generally of Teflon or polypropylene, across which gas exchange occurs. The membrane may be arranged as a series of parallel plates or as a number of hollow fibers; in the latter arrangement, the blood may flow inside the fibers, which are surrounded by gas, or the blood may flow outside the fibers and the gas inside the fibers. (Dorland, 28th ed)Burns, Inhalation: Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Patient Transfer: Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.Air Filters: Barriers used to separate and remove PARTICULATE MATTER from air.Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Organ Dysfunction Scores: Ratings that express, in numerical values, the degree of impairment or abnormality in the function of specific organs.Home Nursing: Nursing care given to an individual in the home. The care may be provided by a family member or a friend. Home nursing as care by a non-professional is differentiated from HOME CARE SERVICES provided by professionals: visiting nurse, home health agencies, hospital, or other organized community group.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Expiratory Reserve Volume: The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Acidosis, Respiratory: Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Noble Gases: Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.