Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.
Skin breakdown or ulceration caused by VARICOSE VEINS in which there is too much hydrostatic pressure in the superficial venous system of the leg. Venous hypertension leads to increased pressure in the capillary bed, transudation of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space, altering blood flow and supply of nutrients to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and eventual ulceration.
Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.
A condition characterized by a chronically swollen limb, often a leg with stasis dermatitis and ulcerations. This syndrome can appear soon after phlebitis or years later. Postphlebitic syndrome is the result of damaged or incompetent venous valves in the limbs. Distended, tortuous VARICOSE VEINS are usually present. Leg pain may occur after long period of standing.
Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
Double-layered inflatable suits which, when inflated, exert pressure on the lower part of the wearer's body. The suits are used to improve or stabilize the circulatory state, i.e., to prevent hypotension, control hemorrhage, and regulate blood pressure. The suits are also used by pilots under positive acceleration.
Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
A vein which arises from the right ascending lumbar vein or the vena cava, enters the thorax through the aortic orifice in the diaphragm, and terminates in the superior vena cava.
A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.
The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.
Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.
Tight coverings for the foot and leg that are worn to aid circulation in the legs, and prevent the formation of EDEMA and DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS. PNEUMATIC COMPRESSION STOCKINGS serve a similar purpose especially for bedridden patients, and following surgery.
Flaps within the VEINS that allow the blood to flow only in one direction. They are usually in the medium size veins that carry blood to the heart against gravity.
A malabsorption condition resulting from greater than 10% reduction in the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes (LIPASE; PROTEASES; and AMYLASE) by the EXOCRINE PANCREAS into the DUODENUM. This condition is often associated with CYSTIC FIBROSIS and with chronic PANCREATITIS.
Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
Failure of the PLACENTA to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and OXYGEN to the FETUS.
Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Treatment of varicose veins, hemorrhoids, gastric and esophageal varices, and peptic ulcer hemorrhage by injection or infusion of chemical agents which cause localized thrombosis and eventual fibrosis and obliteration of the vessels.
The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
A condition caused by one or more episodes of DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS, usually the blood clots are lodged in the legs. Clinical features include EDEMA; PAIN; aching; heaviness; and MUSCLE CRAMP in the leg. When severe leg swelling leads to skin breakdown, it is called venous STASIS ULCER.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.
Peculiarities associated with the internal structure, form, topology, or architecture of organisms that distinguishes them from others of the same species or group.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Inflammation of the periosteum. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone and an aching pain. Acute periostitis is due to infection, is characterized by diffuse suppuration, severe pain, and constitutional symptoms, and usually results in necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A fungal infection of the nail, usually caused by DERMATOPHYTES; YEASTS; or nondermatophyte MOLDS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.
Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.
The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
A form of multiple sclerosis characterized by a progressive deterioration in neurologic function which is in contrast to the more typical relapsing remitting form. If the clinical course is free of distinct remissions, it is referred to as primary progressive multiple sclerosis. When the progressive decline is punctuated by acute exacerbations, it is referred to as progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis. The term secondary progressive multiple sclerosis is used when relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis evolves into the chronic progressive form. (From Ann Neurol 1994;36 Suppl:S73-S79; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)
Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).
The most common clinical variant of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, characterized by recurrent acute exacerbations of neurologic dysfunction followed by partial or complete recovery. Common clinical manifestations include loss of visual (see OPTIC NEURITIS), motor, sensory, or bladder function. Acute episodes of demyelination may occur at any site in the central nervous system, and commonly involve the optic nerves, spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebellum. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Conditions in which the LIVER functions fall below the normal ranges. Severe hepatic insufficiency may cause LIVER FAILURE or DEATH. Treatment may include LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.