Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Intermittent Claudication: A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.Bence Jones Protein: An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.New England: The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.Amputation: The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)General Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Specialties, Surgical: Various branches of surgical practice limited to specialized areas.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.Far East: A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Kidney Pelvis: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Urologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.Intestinal Obstruction: Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.Bezoars: Concretions of swallowed hair, fruit or vegetable fibers, or similar substances found in the alimentary canal.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: A condition that occurs when the obstruction of the thin-walled SUPERIOR VENA CAVA interrupts blood flow from the head, upper extremities, and thorax to the RIGHT ATRIUM. Obstruction can be caused by NEOPLASMS; THROMBOSIS; ANEURYSM; or external compression. The syndrome is characterized by swelling and/or CYANOSIS of the face, neck, and upper arms.Vena Cava, Superior: The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.Syphilis, Cardiovascular: Cardiovascular manifestations of SYPHILIS, an infection of TREPONEMA PALLIDUM. In the late stage of syphilis, sometimes 20-30 years after the initial infection, damages are often seen in the blood vessels including the AORTA and the AORTIC VALVE. Clinical signs include syphilitic aortitis, aortic insufficiency, or aortic ANEURYSM.Brachiocephalic Veins: Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.Mediastinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Microscopy, Interference: The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic: Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.Dental Prosthesis Retention: Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.Anticodon: The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.Electrocoagulation: Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Obstetrical Forceps: Surgical instrument designed to extract the newborn by the head from the maternal passages without injury to it or the mother.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Extraction, Obstetrical: Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Jaw DiseasesReproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Thermal Conductivity: The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Convection: Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.