Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.
An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
A water-soluble medicinal preparation applied to the skin.
A frozen dairy food made from cream or butterfat, milk, sugar, and flavorings. Frozen custard and French-type ice creams also contain eggs.
Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.
Oleagenous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
A colloidal system of semisolid hydrocarbons obtained from PETROLEUM. It is used as an ointment base, topical protectant, and lubricant.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.
A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.
Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.
Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Inflammation of the VULVA. It is characterized by PRURITUS and painful urination.
Pathological processes of the VULVA.
The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.
An erectile structure homologous with the penis, situated beneath the anterior labial commissure, partially hidden between the anterior ends of the labia minora.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A genus of gram-negative, nonmotile bacteria which are common parasitic inhabitants of the urogenital tracts of humans, cattle, dogs, and monkeys.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
An antitoxin used for the treatment of TETANUS.
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.
A synthetic, non-steroidal estrogen structurally related to stilbestrol. It is used, usually as the cream, in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal symptoms.
A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)
17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.
A synthetic estrogen that has been used as a hormonal antineoplastic agent.
Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.
Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.